Growing Mini Violets, Planting Care and Propagation
Miniature senpolii Russian flower growers carried away relatively recently. Previously, preference was traditionally given to standard varieties with large double flowers of bright colors. A couple of “crumbs” of foreign selection were kept in the collection as a special highlight. Now the situation has changed, and there is an opportunity to collect a whole arsenal of mini-violets, since almost all foreign varieties are available to flower lovers.
Where do the roots of the mini-senpolia come from?
Many are probably inclined to believe that miniature senpolis are the result of the activity of breeders. But this is by no means the case. In 1898, Saint Sopolia was first found and described.... pusilla with white-blue flowers (unfortunately, it is believed that now this species is absent in the culture). In addition, minifialos include S. shumensis, found in 1955, S. brevipilosa, discovered in 1964, long stem S. goetzeana (1900). That is, it is quite obvious that charming crumbs are the creation of nature itself. But of course, the current variety of varieties would not have been possible without the painstaking work of breeders.
Initially, the goal of hybridizing the senpolia was to obtain large rosettes and bright large flowers, and miniature varieties remained in the shade for a long time, breeders did not pay much attention to them. Turning to the documents, it can be noted that the American Society of Lovers of Uzambara Violets did not notice these babies and for the first time registered mini varieties only in 1963. Gradually, the popularity of miniature senpolis began to grow, and now there are more of them in the register.
But the features of mini-senpolias do not end in small sizes. Usually they form a larger than the standard varieties, the number of leaves, while the plant is capable of independently, without additional techniques, to form a neat rosette. This is due to the fact that the growing leaves lie flat on top of each other, row after row, as if forming a delightful mosaic. But that is not all. Mini senpolias are famous for a wide variety of foliage types. And modern varieties delight with a huge mass of flowers, which sometimes hide the plant itself.
Mini senpolias grow and develop faster than standard ones. Having planted the leaf in a light mixture (for example, consisting of moss, sand and peat), after 6 months you can enjoy plentiful flowering.
For the cultivation of mini-senpolia, the northwest, north or east window is perfectly suitable. The excess lighting that is observed on the southern and southwestern window sills is harmful not only to miniature, but also to standard varieties of this plant. In the case when the windows are facing south, southeast or southwest, violets from February to September inclusive can be kept in the back of the room, for example, on a coffee table. All the rest of the time, the plants will feel good on the windowsill.
Flowering guaranteed all year round. If the windows open on opposite sides, it is recommended that from October to January contain plants in the south, southeast, southwest, and from February to September - on the north, northeast, northwest windows. Violets, standing on the eastern windowsills, will delight flowering without additional permutations.
If the goal is to collect an extensive collection of crumbs and place it on a separate rack, then you should take care of artificial lighting. Minifiales need more light than their "sisters" of normal height. When re-illuminating, it is important to observe the condition: the distance from the lamp to the outlet should be at least 20 cm (optimally 25-30 cm).
The optimum air humidity for senpolia is -50-70%, and the temperature is about 24 °. Such conditions are desirable to maintain throughout the year.
For planting miniature varieties, the same earth or mineral mixtures are used that are used to plant standard violets. But it is important to keep in mind that mini violets are more sensitive to the quality of the substrate. Therefore, if there is no confidence in the purchased mixture, then it is better to compose it yourself.
One of the most suitable recipes for soil mixtures is as follows: leafy earth, black soil, sand, moss and neutralized peat (1: 1: 1: 1: 3). The use of humus or nitrogen fertilizers must be limited. For 10 liters of the mixture you need to add 1 liter of charcoal and 2 tbsp. tablespoons of superphosphate. For mini-plants, the fractions of the components should be smaller, but of course, within reasonable limits, not dusty. If the transplant is to be carried out annually, then you can do without additional fertilizing - the prepared mixture contains all the necessary supply of food.
In spring and summer, observing the temperature and humidity modes necessary for mini-senpolias is not a big deal. But in winter, plants standing on the windowsill will need protection from hypothermia and excessive dry air. And here the size of plants is on hand for the grower. Since they are miniature, it is much easier to place them on the windows in baskets with moss or in pallets filled with expanded clay or wet sand.
At the same time, having a little imagination, the composition can be decorated decoratively - and the plants will be fine, and the violet “garden” will fit perfectly into the interior of the room.
However, in this matter it is important not to overdo it. A common mistake: in an effort to create an interesting mini-landscape, flower growers often plant violets in bulk dishes or plant in groups of several. And this has a bad effect on the growth of the senpolia. It is necessary to observe the rule of "individual small pot", only then the violet will develop well and bloom. The optimum diameter of the planting pot is 1/3 of the diameter of the leaf outlet. Therefore, if the minifial is involved in the composition with other plants, then the best solution would be to dig it into a common container right in the pot.
In the warm season, it is recommended to water the violets in the morning, but from November to February this procedure is best transferred to daylight hours. At the same time, watering the senpolia in winter should be moderate and only if necessary.
In relation to mini-senpolias, you can apply such watering methods: top, watering in a pan and wick. At the top, the plant is watered under the root, trying not to soak its leaves. For this method, it is convenient to use a syringe or syringe. Watering in the pan and top watering can be alternated between each other. It is important to feel at the same time how much water to pour, and to water when the soil dries out a little.
Wick watering is a method in which a cord is placed in an earthen lump through an opening in the bottom of the pot. Then the pot is placed on an open container of water (a plastic cup is perfect for mini-Saint-Paulies). The cord receives moisture up to the volume that the plant needs. This method is convenient for a vacation or when there is no time to water a large collection of flowers.
Draft for the seniors is always undesirable, but if in the summer you can put up with a warm breeze at least, then in winter the cold air will be destructive for violets. What to do to ensure ventilation in the room and at the same time create the maximum comfort for plants? There is only one way out: remove the violets from under the open window leaf during ventilation. As an option - plants can be covered with plastic wrap. In this case, it is desirable to fix one end of the film on the lower edge of the window leaf so that cold air descends along such a peculiar “slide” down to the batteries.
See also: Senpolia at home - care
MINI VILES: RELIABLE WAYS OF REPRODUCTION
Mini-senpolias lend themselves well to reproduction, you just need to understand some of the subtleties of this process.
MINI VIA: FROM SHEET
For miniature senpolia, propagation by cuttings is most suitable. If possible, select a leaf from the middle rows on the stalk. If the variety is variegated, then the leaf should be no less than half green (leaves lacking chlorophyll take root worse and give offspring poorly).
If the sheet did not reach you immediately and managed to lose elasticity, put it for a couple of hours in warm water, slightly tinted with potassium permanganate. Then, with a sharp knife, renew the cut of the petiole, but so that its length is not less than 1,5 cm. Sprinkle the wound with crushed charcoal and dry for 20 minutes. Now the stalk can be planted.
The soil mixture should be light. You can cook it from sheet soil and horse peat. It is good to disinfect the substrate with sterilization in order to further reduce the risk of diseases in the plant. But this must be done in advance, since it is possible to plant the cuttings in the soil treated in this way no earlier than after 2 weeks, when the beneficial microflora is restored in it.
For sterilization, the soil mixture must be put in a cloth bag and steamed over boiling water for 1 hour.
Another way is to steam the soil in the oven at 200 ° C by spreading it on a baking sheet with a layer of 4-5 cm and adding a little water (to preserve the structure of the substrate). If you have a microwave, you can cultivate the soil in it. The substrate is transferred to a dish suitable for use in the oven, water is added, covered and maintained for 30 minutes at maximum power.
After a couple of weeks after sterilization, the remaining components will need to be added to the soil mixture (per 1 liter of substrate): 1 cup perlite, vermiculite or a mixture thereof, 0,5 cup crushed moss sphagnum and 1/4 cup crushed charcoal.
Any containers are suitable for rooting cuttings (plastic pots and cups with a diameter of 5 cm or a special cassette for sowing seeds), it is only necessary that there is a plot of at least 3 × 3 cm on one sheet. Such a place is enough for the full development of future children.
In the landing tank, a quarter of the volume should be occupied by drainage, which can be used as expanded clay or pieces of foam. It copes well with the functions of drainage and moss-sphagnum, and in addition, it perfectly supports soil moisture.
After laying the drainage layer, the container is filled with a substrate, a small indentation is made in the center and perlite is poured into it (it passes air well and will contribute to rapid root formation). The petiole of the sheet is carefully lowered into perlite so that its cut is sharp deepened by about 0,5 cm. To prevent the sheet from falling, you can back it with a piece of foam or a segment cut out of a plastic cup. The main thing is that there should not be sharp edges on the upper edge of the support that could damage the sheet.
Planted cuttings must be placed in a greenhouse and put it in a bright place. A moist, warm environment will contribute to the rooting and development of children. It is important not to forget to regularly air the greenhouse and remove condensate, it is most reliable to make ventilation holes in the upper part. The optimal conditions for cuttings are temperature at the level of 22-25 ° and lighting for 12 hours. It is necessary to moisten the soil as it dries, using only warm, settled water.
The first babies appear about a month after planting. When they grow a little, the plant can be fed with a weak solution of fertilizer containing nitrogen. After 3-3,5 months, the children should already have 3-4 pairs of leaves. At this time, you can start transplanting young mini-senpolia.
The mother sheet with the children should be carefully removed from the pot. Children are separated so that everyone has approximately the same number of roots. It is advisable to prepare the substrate and planting pots in the same way as for cuttings. If the roots on young violets are well developed, then it is possible to plant not in perlite, but in a soil mixture.
Children of miniature senpolia are best planted in pots with a diameter of 5 cm. You can use smaller containers, but in this case you will have to water the plants more often.
Due to the danger of rotting, rooting mini-violet cuttings is desirable in the substrate, and not in water.
MINI VIA: FROM SIDNESS
Abundantly branching varieties of mini-senpolia can be well propagated by stepsons. The grown axillary stepchild is carefully separated from the plant and sprinkled with crushed charcoal or garden sulfur on its base.
After 15-20 minutes, the stepson can be placed for rooting in the greenhouse. For these purposes, it is convenient to use a transparent plastic bag with a clasp. Inside the package you need to put a little
slightly moist chopped moss-sphagnum and immerse the lower part of the stepson into it.
Then, the clasp is clamped on the bag and suspended in a bright place. In one package, you can immediately place 2-3 stepson of one variety, several such greenhouses with mini senpolias will not take up much space.
After some time, when numerous roots are formed on the stem, the stepson can be taken out of the bag, peeled sphagnum moss from its roots and planted in the soil mixture.
Hardening of young violets
You can not drastically change the conditions of the senpolia. This leads to a weakening of immunity and can cause disease and even death of plants. Therefore, it is advisable to place the planted young violets for a couple of weeks (or more reliably for a month) back into the greenhouse and gradually begin to accustom them to room air.
- 1-3 days: the greenhouse is opened for 15-20 minutes 1-2 times a day.
- 4-7th day: the greenhouse is kept open for 25-30 minutes 1-2 times a day.
- 8-12th day: every day slightly increase the time intervals and gradually bring the children in fresh air at a time to 1 hour. Such hardening sessions are carried out three times a day.
- 13-16th day: children are left open for 2 hours at least twice a day, and if possible, three.
- 17-20th day: the greenhouse is kept open 4-5 hours a day.
- 21-25th day: plants stand in the fresh air up to 8 hours a day.
- 25-30th day: you can keep the greenhouse open all the time or rearrange the children to a permanent place of cultivation.
IN THREE SUNSETS
If the children are very different from each other in size, then you can separate some of the largest, and send the mother sheet with the remaining "youth" again for rearing. In general, if you separate the children from the "mother" with all possible accuracy, then a healthy green (non-yellowing), preserved turgor leaf can produce the following offspring - the second or even third. After all the babies are separated from the maternal leaf and deposited, more than a month can pass before the second wave of offspring, but a couple of weeks also happen.
It all depends on the variety, leaf condition and plant conditions. True, it is noted that sometimes the multiple use of the cuttings affects the intensity of staining of flowers obtained on the rosettes of the second or third wave.
When starting to propagate plants, it is important to take care of clean hands and equipment. If they have already been used, ceramic pots are washed thoroughly with hot water and poured with boiling water, while used plastic ones are soaked for 1 hour in a chlorine-based product.
Growing floriculturists often have shelves, all with a phenomenon that scares them very much: a powdery coating appears on the leaves, and later on the flower stalks, which can go to the neighboring Saintpoly. Infection spreads very rapidly if dirty equipment is used, pots or a stalk taken from a diseased plant is taken. When you try to wash away the plaque with water, the ulcerated surface of the linden becomes clearly visible. Powdery mildew causes such lesions. Subsequently, a gradual death of the leaves and the death of the whole plant occurs.
In the recent past, powdery mildew was so common that some gardeners even considered it an indispensable companion of violets. But modern means and methods have changed the situation. Currently, there are drugs, a single use of which allows you to eliminate the disease for a period of more than 2 years. It is possible that powdery mildew after processing could have been completely forgotten if the collection of violets were not constantly replenished. Unfortunately, with the acquisition of new specimens, there is always the possibility of infection with the spores of this pathogenic fungus.
MINI FILKII: VIDEO ABOUT THEM
© Author: Nina Vershinina
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