- ✓ WHAT DO I NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE BIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF WHITE CABBAGE?
- ✓ HOW TO properly grow seedlings of cabbage?
- ✓ FACT: SEEDS OF ALL TYPES OF KALBOOS KEEP GOOD SIMILARITY 3-4 YEARS.
- ✓ RULES FOR GROWING SPRAYS OF CABBAGE IN A GREENHOUSE?
- ✓ WHAT SHOULDING CABBAGE SHOULD BE?
- ✓ RULES FOR PREPARATION AND FERTILIZATION OF SOIL UNDER PLANTING Cabbage?
- ✓ RULES OF CARE FOR THE CABBAGE IN THE PERIOD OF VEGETATION?
- ✓ FACT: DEEP LANDING DELAYS PLANT DEVELOPMENT.
- ✓ RULES OF CABBAGE GROWING: Pests and Control Measures
- ✓ DISEASES CABBAGE
- ✓ 6 RULES FOR CABBAGE HARVEST
- ✓ RULES FOR CABBAGE GROWING IN OPEN GROUND - VIDEO
RULES OF CABBAGE GROWING AND FEATURES - TIPS K.S.H. SCIENCE
The word "cabbage" comes from the ancient Greek "caputum" (head), which emphasizes the peculiar shape of this vegetable. The ancient Greeks and Romans grew no more than a dozen varieties of cabbage. In the XIX century, there were already about 30, and now more than a hundred. Our ancestors were sure that cabbage seedlings should be planted on May 18, on the day of Arina the seedling. In their opinion, this was the key to a good harvest.
Efim Andreevich Grachev, a well-known Russian gardener, adhered to this tradition, who in 1873 surprised the participants of the Vienna Vegetable Exhibition with a huge head of cabbage, whose diameter was 71 cm. Do you want to enjoy the harvest of this vegetable in your garden? Then remember rules for growing cabbage from the candidate of agricultural sciences Nikolay Khromov.
WHAT DO I NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE BIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF WHITE CABBAGE?
The growing season in the first year of life of cabbage is 90-180 days. Depending on its duration, varieties are divided into early ripe (90-120 days), mid-ripening (120-150 days) and late ripe (160-180 days).
Cabbage grows best on loams and fertile cultivated soil with a pH of at least 5, 5. Responsive to feeding. The most favorable temperature for growing is + 15 ... + 17 degrees. Well-hardened seedlings after planting in open ground can withstand temperatures down to -5 degrees. Plants of late varieties in the autumn endure short-term frosts down to -8 degrees. Planted in the soil before the start of budding can withstand the same frost.
But the high temperature, especially in combination with drought, greatly inhibits the growth and development of plants.
FACT: CABBAGE IS REQUIRED FOR MOISTURE, HOWEVER, OVERHUMIDATION OF THE SOIL HAS A NEGATIVE IMPACT ON ITS GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY.
White cabbage seedlings are planted in open ground if 5-7 true leaves are present on the plants, but no later than 45-50 days after emergence, cauliflower - 30-40 days.
White cabbage is grown in an ordinary way with a row-spacing width for early-ripening varieties of 50 cm, medium and late-ripening - 60 cm and a distance between plants in a row of 50-60 cm.
HOW TO properly grow seedlings of cabbage?
Better in two steps: first sow the seeds in special boxes, and then pee seedlings. The term for sowing seeds for seedlings is determined based on the fact that from sowing seeds to seedlings takes 8-12 days and from seedlings to the formation of full seedlings - another 45-50 days. Hence the conclusion: sowing seeds to obtain seedlings is necessary 55-60 days before planting in the ground - somewhere around March 15-20.
For sowing seeds, it is better to use a box 60 cm long, 30 cm wide and 10 cm high. Soil - a mixture of prepared turf or garden soil, humus and sand (1: 2: 1). On a bucket of this composition, add 2 tbsp. wood ash or 1 tbsp. lime fluff. So that the soil is not too compacted, you can add a little stale sawdust and weathered mullein.
FACT: SEEDS OF ALL TYPES OF KALBOOS KEEP GOOD SIMILARITY 3-4 YEARS.
When one or two true leaves appear, seedlings dive into pots, cubes, cups or boxes according to the 6 × 6 cm pattern into a mixture of the same composition as for sowing seeds. 20 g of ammonium nitrate and superphosphate, 10 g of potassium chloride must be added to the bucket of the mixture. Seedlings before planting in the ground should be fed twice with a solution of complex fertilizer (10 g per 10 l of water) - at 0, 5 tbsp. per plant.
In open ground seedlings are planted in late April or early May. Better at the end of the day or in cloudy weather. One hour before planting, they must be watered, and after planting, they are dusted with tobacco dust or pyrethrum powder to protect against cabbage flies.
RULES FOR GROWING SPRAYS OF CABBAGE IN A GREENHOUSE?
In this case, in the first half of March, a mixture of sifted humus and sod land (3: 1) is poured on a heated and leveled manure in a greenhouse with a layer of 12-15 cm. They are leveled with a rake, slightly compacted and shed with mullein infusion (1:10; bucket on a standard frame) and hot water (also a bucket on the frame). After the soil is marked with a board on 10 × 10 cm squares.
In the center of each, a depression is made in which 3-5 granules of superphosphate and 2-3 nibbled cabbage seeds are placed, covered with sand or compost. The greenhouse is covered with a frame and in two layers with mats. After 2-3 days, the mats are removed and covered with a greenhouse only at night or in severe frost. In the phase of the second real leaf, seedlings are fed with a solution of complex fertilizer (matchbox per 10 l of water) with the addition of 0 tbsp. wood ash. The air temperature in the greenhouse is maintained at + 5 ... + 14 degrees during the day, + 18 ... + 10 degrees at night.
TIP: Seedlings of mid-ripening and mid-late varieties of all types of cabbage can be grown in open ground on insulated beds, which are placed in fertile, weed-free areas that are convenient for irrigation, protected from the wind. Seeds are sown in rows at a distance of 5 cm, and with the appearance of one or two true leaves, plants dive according to a 10 × 10 cm pattern.
WHAT SHOULDING CABBAGE SHOULD BE?
Good precursors for cabbage are all vegetable crops, except for representatives of the cabbage (cruciferous) family. Cabbage should be returned to its original place no earlier than after 4-5 years. After the same period, it can be grown after other cultures of the cabbage family. With frequent return to the same place, cabbage is greatly affected by diseases and pests.
RULES FOR PREPARATION AND FERTILIZATION OF SOIL UNDER PLANTING Cabbage?
Under early cabbage, it is better to bring manure in the fall, and humus or peat compost in the spring for plowing the soil at the rate of a bucket per 1 sq.m. Mineral - with presowing loosening of the soil or with top dressing. Under cabbage of medium-late and late varieties, organic fertilizers are best applied in the spring.
In the fall, humus is applied for plowing or digging the soil (bucket per 1 sq. M). In the spring, as soon as the soil dries, the plot is harrowed, and before planting, the seedlings are dug up, leveled and marked in the cross direction. At the intersection of the marker, dig holes of 8-10 cm depth and fill them with humus with wood ash (or lime) 2-3 cm deep, and in the absence of humus with ash and complex fertilizer (according to instructions).
RULES OF CARE FOR THE CABBAGE IN THE PERIOD OF VEGETATION?
Before planting, seedlings are carefully inspected. Damaged and diseased plants are discarded. Long roots of seedlings are shortened by a third. Seedlings are planted, deepening to the first real leaves (no deeper!).
When planting, the earth around the plants is tightly pressed to the roots so that there are no voids left. Immediately after planting and in the next 4-5 days, cabbage is watered only in the evenings. After 25-30 days, they are fed infusion of mullein (1:10) or bird droppings (1:12). You can - a solution of complex fertilizer (according to the instructions).
Fertilize fertilizer solutions carefully so as not to get on the leaves and cause burns. At the first sub-kbrmke, spend 0 liters per well, at the second (5-15 days after the first) - 20 liter. Be sure to loosen the soil in the aisles after top dressing, spud the plants. Further planting care - weeding, hilling plants, loosening row spacings. It is also necessary to monitor the appearance of pests and get rid of them in a timely manner.
FACT: DEEP LANDING DELAYS PLANT DEVELOPMENT.
An annual plant that forms only a rosette of leaves or loose heads of cabbage. From the sowing of seeds to the formation of a full rosette in the open ground, 40-50 days pass, until the heading out — 50-60 days. With spring sowing of seeds, plants often go on to bloom, bypassing the heading phase, so it is better to grow since July. Beijing is demanding on moisture. With low light gives a low yield.
Broccoli photophilous and hygrophilous. Optimum soil moisture during cultivation is 70%, air humidity is 85%. Broccoli tolerates heat and frosts well (it can withstand up to -7 degrees.). It grows better at moderate temperatures from +16 to +20 degrees. The lateral shoots from the sinuses quickly grow on the plant, so you should not pull it out of the ground after cutting the central head of cabbage (from the side shoots you will collect an additional crop).
By the nature of its development, it is almost no different from the white, but does not have early varieties. Its agricultural technology is the same as that of the white one.
Plants are demanding on moisture and soil fertility, grow and develop better at moderate temperatures, on sandy loamy soils and light loams with a high humus content. The agricultural technology of cauliflower is basically the same as that of white cabbage, but we must remember that it is in great need of nutrition. The first time it is fed during head formation (20 g of ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride and 50 g of superphosphate or 100 g of complex fertilizer per 10 l of water). The second feeding is given 10 days after the first. On the plant spend on 0, 5-1 l of solution.
Biennial plant. The vegetative period of early ripening varieties is 130-150 days. It grows best on structural, humus-rich soils. In drought, watering is necessary at the rate of 1 -2 liters of water per plant.
To get heads in early July, purchase early seed varieties. They are sown in a greenhouse in March, and seedlings are planted in the first decade of May. At the beginning of growth, plants need nitrogen fertilizers, and potassium-phosphorus fertilizers - during the formation of heads of cabbage. For a larger crop, water the plantings with a solution of humates.
Protection from pests and diseases Cabbage plants are harmed by both multivorous and pests that damage only cruciferous plants.
RULES OF CABBAGE GROWING: Pests and Control Measures
Slugs lead a nocturnal lifestyle, eat out holes of various sizes on the leaves. In the daytime, they hide under clods of soil, plants and in other secluded places. In cloudy and rainy weather they crawl out of shelters and eat in the afternoon.
Effective layout around the beds of large leaves of cabbage or burdock, pieces of plywood. Under these shelters, slugs hide during the day. In the early morning, shelters are moved to another place, and slugs are destroyed.
wireworm damage the main root and contribute to infection with bacteriosis. The damage caused by wireworms is especially great in dry years.
Loosening row-spacing in July, when wireworm pupation, nitrogen fertilizer, ash, liming of the soil occurs.
Cabbage shovel especially late cabbage. Young caterpillars live in groups and feed on the underside of leaves. Older adults eat large, rounded through holes in the leaves. They feed at night, during the day they hide at the base of the head of cabbage. In autumn, the caterpillars switch to feeding with more tender leaves of the head of cabbage and bite inside. Heads of rot.
Deep digging of the soil, growing dill and caraway seeds near cabbage beds (their smell repels pests). Collection and destruction of tracks. With their mass appearance - spraying with solutions of Thunderstorm or Meta preparations. The last processing is carried out no later than a month before harvesting.
Cabbage moth. Warm and dry autumn contributes to its mass reproduction. Caterpillars eat out the pulp of leaves from the underside, they also get into the heart of a head of head tied up - the plant does not tie head out or forms many small heads.
With the mass appearance of caterpillars, spraying plants with solutions of Goosa or Meta preparations, a 0, 2-0, 3% solution of Karbofos or a 0, 2-0, 5% aqueous suspension of Entobacterin-3. The fight must begin when the first signs of damage appear.
Cruciferous fleas. Small jumping bugs are especially dangerous for young immature shoots and planted seedlings of cabbage. Damage cotyledons and young leaves, eating small ulcers on them. With severe damage, the leaves dry out.
Destruction of weeds, deep plowing, loosening of the soil. When fleas appear, dusting of plants and the soil around them is effective with tobacco dust, furnace ash, and fluff lime.
cabbage fly in April-May it lays eggs on the ground near the cabbage plants or on the lower part of the stem. The appeared larvae make their way to the root and penetrate into it. Damaged plants do not grow well, many die. Departure of the second generation is observed in June-early July. The most dangerous is the first generation.
Deep plowing after cruciferous crops. Growing seedlings in peat pots, early planting in the soil, timely feeding and hilling of plants. When planting seedlings, the wells can be shed with a 0% chlorophos solution (flow rate per plant — 2 l).
Cabbage whiting in May, lays on the leaves (often on the lower side) bright yellow eggs in groups of up to 100 pcs. Young caterpillars eat the flesh of the leaves, leaving the lower skin intact, adults leave only the veins. Over the summer, females give 2 generations. The most dangerous first.
Turnip white. Her females lay their eggs one at a time. Caterpillars are dull green, velvety, with a yellow stripe on the back. Eats the leaves of all cruciferous plants. The most dangerous damage to the tracks of the second generation.
Destruction of cruciferous weeds. Processing plants during the feeding of young caterpillars with a 0, 2-0, 4% solution of Karbofos. Manually destroy eggs on leaves and collect caterpillars.
Cabbage aphids damages cabbage, rutabaga and other cruciferous crops. Damaged aphids leaves discolor and curl, sometimes becoming pink. The development of the head is paused. During the summer, aphids give up to 16 generations. The development of one generation lasts 10-14 days.
Abundant spraying with a 0, 3-0, 4% solution of Karbofos or another insecticide approved for use on a personal plot. Processing is carried out 2-3 times (the last - 30-45 days before harvesting). Destruction of weeds and stumps of cabbage.
TIP: Bears do great harm to cabbage. Destroying them in the summer is problematic, because they dig holes in the ground to a depth of 1 m. But you can outwit the pests! Before planting seedlings, scatter baits of peas that have been cooked and treated with any insecticide over the bed, and cover them with a rake in the soil. Within a week, the bear will crawl to the surface and die.
Cabbage whale - One of the most dangerous fungal diseases of cabbage, turnip, radish and rutabaga. In seedlings, the disease manifests itself only 30 days after sowing the seeds and is weakly visible, so it is difficult to cull the affected plants on time.
Seedlings planted in the ground cannot absorb water and nutrients in sufficient quantities, the aboveground part weakly develops, heads of cabbage are not formed. By autumn, growths on the roots of diseased plants decay, and the mass of wintering spores remains in the soil, where it remains viable for 2-3 years or longer.
The causative agent of keel affects cabbage most often in acidic soils and with excessively high humidity. Therefore, liming the soil and maintaining optimal humidity limit the development of the disease.
Growing healthy seedlings in peat pots, which include peat, mullein and humus. The use of calcium cyanamide - 20 g per bucket of peat mixture. When introduced into the soil, calcium cyanamide quickly decomposes, forming calcium oxide, which kills the spores of the keel pathogen.
Plots intended for growing cabbage, 1, 5-2 weeks before planting seedlings should be made (300-500 g per 1 sq. M). From nitrogen fertilizers, calcium cyanamide (300 g per 1 sq. M) is added at the same time.
If the field is infected with a keel, then immediately after harvesting the cabbage, it should be decontaminated (add lime at the rate of 30 kg per 10 square meters) and plowed to a depth of 20-25 cm.
Blackleg affects seedlings and sprouts of cabbage. The root neck becomes brown or black, thin, often bent and rot. Affected seedlings lie and dry. The development of the disease is promoted by increased humidity and temperature of the soil and air, weakening of plants from a lack of light, nutrition or poor ventilation in greenhouses.
Periodic soil changes in the greenhouse and steam disinfection at + 90 ... + 100 degrees for 45 minutes. Disinfection of frames and log cabins with formalin. Liming of peat pots. Cleaning glass frames to improve lighting in greenhouses. Culling sick plants before planting seedlings in the ground. Fertilization in the holes when planting cabbage.
Dry rot (phomosis of cabbage)
Gray rot (Botritis cabbage)
White rot (cabbage sclerotinia)
Black spotting (Alternaria cabbage)
The control measures for these diseases of cabbage are identical.
1. Change of soil in hotbeds and nurseries.
2. The introduction of wood ash in greenhouses and in the holes when planting seedlings.
3. Liming of acidic soils before sowing seeds of cruciferous crops.
4. The introduction of high doses of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
5. Lowering the temperature during storage of cabbage.
6. Use for sowing only healthy, disinfected seeds.
First of all, remember: the defeat of plants by diseases and pests is interconnected, so the fight against some reduces the harmfulness of others.
Cabbage should not be planted in one place more often than once every three years.
To protect cabbage from diseases, the seeds are warmed up before sowing, dipping them in water heated to +50 degrees for twenty minutes, maintaining a constant temperature. After that, they are cooled in cold water.
With the advent of cruciferous fleas, aphids, caterpillars of whites and other pests, plants Spray with one of the insecticides (Spark Double Effect, Spark-M, Senpai, Fufanon, Inta-Vir, Knockdown). These measures to control pests of cabbage are repeated, as necessary, alternating preparations.
Before sowing, the seeds are soaked in one of the preparations (Epin, Immunocitofit, Gumisol, Fitosporin) according to the instructions.
Sprouts every two weeks should be watered with a pink solution of potassium permanganate for the prevention of black legs.
When transplanting seedlings, sick and weak plants are discarded.
6 RULES FOR CABBAGE HARVEST
Cabbage is a demanding culture. What is not according to it, will not give a harvest. No wonder she was nicknamed the garden lady. But following simple rules will allow her to form good heads.
LET THERE BE LIGHT
Even with a little shading, the cabbage does not tie the head. Moreover, this shading can come from trees and shrubs growing nearby, as well as from other cabbage plants planted too close to each other. Do not save on food space! At home, I found a way to get large heads of cabbage - I plant late-ripening varieties 10-15 cm wider than indicated in the planting scheme recommended by the seed manufacturer. And my cabbage is very pleased with this! You can plant seedlings more often if you do not need large heads of cabbage.
- IT IS NECESSARY, IT IS NECESSARY TO WASH IN THE MORNING AND EVENING!
Without regular watering, the heads of cabbage will turn out to be small and tender. Moreover, if there is heat, then the plants really like a cold shower, right from the well, when you are wrapping plants with leaves. Therefore, I spend light refreshing watering every morning, and thoroughly (5 liters per plant) - twice a week.
Without a layer of mulch covering the garden bed, you would have to water much more often. But I have all the free space between the plants covered with mulch immediately after transplanting seedlings, and even regularly pour fresh layers on it. With mulching, however, there is one subtlety: put the mulch - be sure to shed it. Then beneficial microorganisms will begin its decomposition, and nutrients will be transferred from their table and plants.
Cabbage is a glutton. To form a head of cabbage, she needs much more nutrients than, say, carrots or beets. For her, I specially hold a barrel with "sweets", where I dump the weeded nettles, dandelions and wheatgrass, drain, if left, the moldy jam and be sure to add yeast. These dressings alternate with complex fertilizer with trace elements. On such a “diet”, heads of cabbage are made both large and tight. Since mid-July, nettle - a source of nitrogen - I no longer add, but I add horsetail and ash to the infusion. I heard that horsetail greens contain a lot of silicon, which helps plants to resist diseases, but ash in a small amount on acidic soil is always good.
Some varieties, especially late-ripening ones, without earthing up can fall to one side under the weight of a head of cabbage. Some of the roots will break off, but the plant will survive. That's how it is, it will survive, but it won't give a large head of cabbage. So hilling ankle calustes will definitely not hurt. And it's better to spend it now. However, if the head of cabbage is on the record (last year Belorusskaya became my champion, the head of cabbage grew in weight of 10 kg), the hilling will not save - such a miracle is needed.
PESTS NO PASARAN!
There are many who want to enjoy sweet cabbage leaves. These are white butterflies with their immoderately voracious caterpillars, and slugs with snails, and even a cabbage moth, not to mention a cabbage fly. For a long time I was tormented, gaining the optimal time for treatment with biological products (they only act on larvae at a certain age, and even at the optimal temperature).
In a word, having jumped over the barriers invented by me, I went the other way and now I regularly spray the cabbage and the soil around it with a solution of tar: 1 tbsp. a spoonful of the drug on a 6-liter sprayer, a sachet of adhesive - and no problem. I use the adhesive because the soap is washed off by sprinkling very quickly, but it still lasts for a while. I carry out the processing every 7-10 days, and the cabbage is clean.
Early ripening varieties and hybrids begin to ripen by mid-July, mid-ripening - at the end of August-September, and late-ripening - by October, after the first frosts, which will give the head of cabbage sweetness. And it is very important that early cabbage and kohlrabi do not sit out in the garden.
You will be late with cleaning - heads of cabbage will crack, and half will go to emission. Therefore, I remove them within the time recommended by the manufacturer. The same F is supposed, Malachite should be removed 50-60 days after transplanting - it is better to remove it. Although they say that it is resistant to cracking heads, it’s better not to risk it. Cabbage of medium maturity can also “explode from within”, although they will be more resistant to this scourge. But the late ones sit to the last!
© Author: L. DVORTSEVA Tver region
WHY CABBAGE SEEDLINGS DRY
Every year, the seedlings of white cabbage grown on the loggia die at the age of 3-4 true leaves. First, the cotyledons dry, then real leaves curl along the edges, the plants turn into a "herbarium". Purchased soil and seeds. I disinfect them with a solution of potassium permanganate. What's the matter?
- There can be many reasons for poor seedling growth, but it is difficult to kill plants, and this is possible only if powerful factors are present.
The defeat of the root system by diseases (fusarium, bacteriosis, keela, black leg, etc.) impairs water absorption. Its leaves actively evaporate, and the roots cannot provide the plant with the required amount.
If the seeds and soil are always fresh, then the reason may be in the container. Use disposable cups or disinfect a lot
one-time before sowing with a strong solution of potassium permanganate.
Many gardeners sin by watering the plants every day, focusing on the dry top layer in the pot. You need to water the seedlings 1 - 2 times a week (depending on the volume of the container, the size of the plants, temperature and humidity). While the seedlings have a couple of true leaves, it is enough to water once a week. With an excess of moisture in the soil, the roots begin to rot, the flow of water into the plant stops - and it dries up.
Another reason is the excess of nutrients in the soil. Some growers add a lot of fertilizer to the soil, and the roots of the seedlings can simply burn out. The content of the batteries is always indicated on the packaging of the soil. If in total there are more than 300 mg / kg, then it is better to dilute such a substrate with sod or forest soil, sand, perlite, vermiculite, expanded clay, which will reduce the concentration of the soil composition.
RULES FOR CABBAGE GROWING IN OPEN GROUND - VIDEO
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- White cabbage - early, medium and late varieties (description)
- Savoy cabbage - growing and grooming
- Beijing cabbage seedlings WITHOUT EARTH: technology and my reviews
- Exact instructions for growing and caring for cabbage - 12 step-by-step points (Altai Territory)
- Cabbage kale (photo) use and cultivation
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