GROWING GLADIOS - QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Gladioli are some of the most magnificent flowers on the site. However, not every grower manages to achieve regular and lush flowering.
Now the plants get sick, then they bloom too late. We will talk about possible difficulties and their solution today.
Gladiolus is a thermophilic plant. In order to bloom and form a full-fledged bulb of substitution, he needs a certain amount of positive temperatures. Raw low places are not suitable for him. For planting, it is best to divert the warmest and sunniest beds. And on damp cold soils, arrange high ridges for gladiolus.
Gladiolus can grow on soils of any mechanical composition, the most important thing is that they are properly prepared. So, on sandy loamy soils, it is necessary to add peat, loam, on loamy peat, humus, and on peat silt or clay.
When preparing the soil, you can make mineral fertilizers, or you can do otherwise: add organic matter to the predecessor culture.
WHEN TO PLANT GLADIOLUS STRAWBERRY?
The soil should warm up to 8-10 ° at a depth of 10-12 cm. In the middle lane, this occurs in late April and early May.
By the time of planting the bulbs, the soil should be prepared. To speed up flowering, many grow bulbs. If you grow in the soil, then the roots can break during transplantation. Therefore, we offer a different way of preparing corms for planting. Take them out of the storage and place them on wooden, metal or plastic lattices, but so that the bottom does not touch the surface. Spray planting material with water daily (it should not accumulate under the bottom). You need to achieve this result: the sprout will begin to develop, and the roots will remain “sleeping”.
After this method of growing, the bulb, getting into the soil, quickly gives root, and the plant starts growing. At the same time, the roots do not break and they do not need to recover, as when growing in pots.
Immediately before planting, soak the corms and children in a solution of a growth stimulant (for example, succinic acid) for 10 hours, then for 20 minutes in a solution of fungicide.
Plant in the soil corms long rows in a direction from north to south. So it’s easier to care and the illumination of each plant is maximum. Pour clean sand into the grooves and plant onions in it.
Plant children (bulbs 3-10 mm in size) at a distance of 5-8 cm in a row with 15 cm spacing to a depth of 4-5 cm.Adult corms (depending on their size and characteristics of the variety) at a distance of 20-25 cm / FRIEND from Friend. The depth can be different, this is a topic of controversy among flower growers. Someone plants shallowly, by 5 cm. Someone tries to deepen, because the soil in the root zone does not dry out, and the plants are perfectly fixed in the soil, and this is especially important during the flowering period, when the aboveground part is high and heavy. There is a successful experience of planting at 18-20 cm! There is also such an observation: with a deep planting of children, few are formed, with a shallow one, a lot. In a word, we recommend choosing the best planting depth for your climatic zone experimentally.
It is believed that a large corm gives several peduncles. This is so if she is at the peak of her development. But a large bulb may turn out to be aging, and then, on the contrary, you can’t expect good flowering. The age of the corm is noticeable in its appearance: the flatter it is and the wider its bottom, the older it is.
During the season, spend a minimum of 3 dressing of gladioli with full mineral fertilizer with trace elements. The first at the time of the appearance of the third leaf, the second when the peduncle appears, and the third after flowering with phosphorus-potassium fertilizer. 2-3 times per season, from June, it is possible to carry out preventive treatment with an insecticide from thrips and a copper-containing fungicide from fungal diseases:
Corms of faded plants are harvested around the middle-end of September (in the middle lane). If flowering is not completed or has not begun, read below. If you dig up corms with obvious signs of illness, it is better to burn them.
Dug corms soak in a solution of fungicide and insecticide for 20-30 minutes (although a similar treatment can be done in the spring, before planting, or not at all). You can just hold it in a solution of potassium permanganate. Then put it to dry.
The correct drying and storage conditions are very important. Dry planting material at a temperature of 25-30 ° for 4-5 weeks. Then remove the old corm, the remnants of the roots and the topmost covering scale and store at a temperature of 3-5 °. Sharp temperature fluctuations are unacceptable. In heat (at temperatures above 10 °) corms can dry out.
You can store it in kraft bags in the basement, in the coolest place in the apartment or on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator.
WHICH VARIETY OF GLADIOLUSES TO CHOOSE?
Varieties are now the sea! Original varieties with interesting colors of green, smoky, blue flowers were bred. There are small-flowered and potted gladioli (glamis). Every year new varieties appear that amaze the imagination and encourage new acquisitions.
But the main criterion is still personal experience checking this or that grade on the site. This is how it is possible to choose the one that settles in the collection for a long time and will please you for more than one year.
Domestic breeders have created a huge number of masterpiece varieties, which are appreciated by true lovers of gladioli. These are real works of floral art that can decorate any collection: Grand Duchess Elizabeth, Noble Nest, Patrons of the Century (M. A. Kuznetsov), Twilight, Flos, Evening Secret, White Birch (S. A. Vasiliev), Bird of Happiness, White in Emerald, Black Cardinal (V. A. Lobaznov), Pistachio Glare, Maya Plisetskaya, Dew in Emerald (A. N. Gromov), Easy Breath, Honey Spas, Unexpected Joy (V. A. Dybov), Lilac in Emerald, Blue Topaz, Raspberry Beads (V. I. Trifonov) and many, many other wonderful varieties.
An exceptional combination of color nuances, amazing corrugation of flowers, and perfect two-rowness of ears distinguish gladioli of domestic selection from the general world one. Exhibitions, which are annually held by gladiolus clubs in Moscow, St. Petersburg and other cities of Russia, turn into a real flower show, holidays of beauty and grace.
The breeding varieties of M. A. Kuznetsov are the only ones that have 20 champion titles. Its varieties are accepted in Europe for industrial propagation. Here are some more great varieties of the famous gladioli breeder.
For those who like bright, remarkable flowers, Hot Summer (soft white-yellow flower with a red eye on the lower petal) and Contrast (bright yellow with a red spot). In the Tango variety, the flowers are also two-tone pink-yellow. The original color of the flower in the variety Radiant Greens is pale turquoise. Cornet, Moscow Snows, Russia are very beautiful. Orthodox white corrugated flowers and powerful peduncles.
And the flowers of the variety Vladislav Piavko have a dark gray-smoky-brown color. Another dark-colored gladiolus with corrugated velvety flowers Enchanting Berry. Bright red flowers in varieties Tsarist Okhota and Royal Elisha, yellow in Victoria. Among the fashionable corrugated varieties with delicate coloring, one can distinguish the variety Katerina, delicately raspberry-pink flowers, as well as Pink Dream, Pink Accord, Angelina Serbskaya, Pink Pearl.
Indeed, our varieties are more effective than foreign ones, and they feel great in our climate. Do they have any flaws? Alas, yes. Unfortunately, in domestic breeding little attention is paid to the health of gladioli. Abroad, more work is being done in this direction. For example, one of the biggest problems, and not only in gladiolus culture, is viruses. Also, the gladioli of our varieties often have insufficient stem rigidity. According to other characteristics, domestic varieties are superior to foreign ones.
3 QUESTIONS ABOUT GLADIOLUS
1. What to do so that corms do not fade?
A whole range of measures must be observed. First of all, the right agricultural technology is important. Gladiolus is a demanding culture. Give them sunny areas with good drainage and fertile, cultivated, slightly acidic, loamy soils. But even here, plants need additional nutrition. During the season, feed the flowers at least 3, and preferably 5-7 times, with mineral fertilizers containing mainly nitrogen at the beginning of active growth, nitrogen and potassium during budding, and potassium and phosphorus from the beginning of flowering. And do not forget about the mandatory - the introduction of calcium and magnesium.
Weed and loosen the soil systematically. Water in dry weather, mindful of the fact that gladioli love water, and they can not stand stagnation of moisture.
Remove wilted inflorescences, and in plants grown from small corms or babies, break flower stalks as soon as they come out of the leaves.
In the middle lane, corms of late varieties are often small - they do not have time to ripen.
2. Why are gladioli blooming too late?
In the middle zone of Russia, in years with a long spring and cool summer, late and very late varieties of gladioli bloom only at the end of September - October. By the time of excavation, the replacement corms do not have time to ripen, and as a result, they will not be stored well, but next year they will not really bloom.
Flowering may be too late for your fault. If you plant corms too late, in a shady place, in poor soil, forget to feed, the result will be just as sad.
Let's say October has already come, frosts have begun, and gladioluses are only blooming. Even in this case, you must not be late with the excavation, remember that a temperature of minus 5-7 ° will destroy not only the aboveground part, but also the corm. Before digging, cut the peduncles (if the buds have time to stain, they will still bloom in the vase), and leave the leaves. Bring the dug plants together with the “tops” to a warm room, the outflow of nutrients from the leaves into the corm will continue for some more time. When the foliage is completely dry, remove it and dry the corms.
Nevertheless, it is better to choose early and medium varieties that bloom reliably in your area.
H. How to grow "green" gladiolus? No chemistry?
In order for gladioli to achieve the most decorative effect, corms must be healthy. Almost all literature offers drastic measures to etch both the planting material itself and the soil before planting. In order not to expose vegetables to pesticides, the area reserved for gladioli is usually assigned to them. The treatments are repeated from year to year, the ecology of the soil is disturbed, and the quality of planting material is deteriorating. Very often flower growers get tired of fighting rot and pests and refuse to grow gladioli. But you can also admire healthy flowering plants, and do not violate the soil micro-flora. Moreover, to include gladioli in the general cultural turnover - it will be easier for you, too, especially if the site is small, and it is more useful for plants.
Here is the experience of one of our subscribers: “I am very sensitive to soil fertility. I do not use chemical pesticides or mineral fertilizers on my site, including on the site with gladioli. I dig the ridges with a pitchfork, make compost based on cow or horse manure. On beds with heavier structural soil, I close rye straw.
I treat bulbs and children before planting with biological preparations (biofungicide and biobactericide). Into the grooves and holes I bring in ash with crushed burned bones. During the season, I feed seedlings with humic fertilizers for garden plants.
When the seedlings reach a height of 20 cm, mulch the compost planting based on horse manure. So I grow healthy plants and do not violate soil fertility.
Planting gladioli included in the total crop rotation. I return them to their original place after 2 years. In such conditions, my gladiolus practically does not get sick, is not damaged by thrips, and the living microflora is preserved in the soil. My gladioli occupy an area of 1,5 acres. "
GLADIOLUSES: TIME TO DIGGER
Gladioli usually begin to dig in the second half of September and finish in the first decade of October.
For good maturation of corms and children, it is necessary that they are in the soil for at least 35 days after cutting the inflorescences. If the plant bloomed on August 10, then the corm is ready for digging on September 15. True, most of the small corms, especially the late varieties, bloom only in September. In this case, experienced flower growers do not allow gladioli to bloom until the very harvest, they break off the flower arrows as soon as they come out of the leaves (so the corm has time to ripen and overwinter well).
After digging, I wash the corms in a large colander in a tank of water.
I cut the stem to the base with a pruner. Immediately remove the old maternal corms - by the end of the growing season, it dies off, transferring the reserves of nutrients and genetic information to the replacing young corms.
I separate the baby and the roots of the replacing young corms. Corms grown from tubers (babies) are better stored if the roots are not removed from them, but simply cut off with scissors. I wash the corms and babies again, but under running water.
I lay out the planting material according to varieties together with a label in cloth or nylon bags, dry it for several days. If it was not possible to cope with gladiolus thrips in the summer, for disinfection I dip the corms for 30 minutes in the Inta-Vira solution (1 tablet per 5 liters of water). After the corms, I wash them under running water and send them to dry.
I dry at a temperature of +25 +30 degrees, using a fan heater in a small room for 10-14 days. Then I transfer it to a ventilated room and dry it out again
3-4 weeks at a temperature of +20 degrees. Then I transfer part of the planting material from the garden plot to the apartment, where I store it on an insulated balcony at a temperature of + 4 + 9 degrees. Another part of the corms remains to overwinter at the dacha in a dry basement at a temperature of + 3 + 7 degrees, and a relative humidity of 65-80%.
In the fall, after harvesting gladioli, I prepare the ridges for spring planting. I dig up the soil and add 4-5-year-old humus (2-7 kg per 1 square meter).
Summer residents sometimes store corms in the vegetable compartment of the refrigerator. In this case, you must first check the temperature there with a thermometer - it should not fall below +3 degrees, (at temperatures below 0 degrees, the corms may even die).
© Author: Anatoly KISELEV, Balashikha.
GROWING GLADIOLUS - TIPS AND FEEDBACK FOR PLANTING AND CARE
GLADIOLUS ON GUARD OF HAPPINESS
The name of the genus "gladiolus" comes from the Latin word for "sword". In Russia, he was called a skewer or saber-grass. According to legend, it brings good luck to warriors on the battlefield, and for civilians it symbolizes a happy life.
Remember the seventies and eighties? It was then that summer residents had something like an obligatory flower set. Gladiolus, peonies, asters - every self-respecting summer resident must certainly grow them.
I remember how I was looking for new varieties in the markets, changing with my neighbors, and how upset I was once when an ordinary white one grew instead of the promised terry. Instead of food, my refrigerator was filled with gladiolus tubers wrapped in newspaper. And then - planting on the best part of the garden (to the detriment of potatoes!), top dressing, garter and ... three weeks of happiness: gladioli bloomed!
A lot of things have changed since then: and I only plant potatoes in a bucket - to indulge in the young, but the garden with gladioli is unchanged, and in the refrigerator is the same tuber storage, for which I am constantly scolded by my family. But what to do! This is Love.
Today I no longer plant gladioli sadly, on the same bed. I arrange them in groups, along the paths, in the background. About 10 plants of the same variety look beautiful, preferably solid colors. I came up with the idea of tying them with a sheaf with a wide bright ribbon. It turns out beautiful!
The main thing to remember is that gladioli love good sunlight all season - from planting to digging.
My favorite varieties: Moscow White Stone, Painted watercolor, Marvelous marvelous, Moscow exotic, Flower of Hope (these gladioli are sometimes called orchid), Spruce trees, George Soros (funny varieties with random spots), Dew in emerald, Swan song (colors flow smoothly one into the other), Philip, The Fate of Russia.
© Author: A. Kostomarova of the Pskov region
By the way
In addition to the stately tall beauties that we are used to, there are small-colored and even miniature gladioli. They look even more imposing than their tall counterparts, especially when they are presented by children. Agree, in the hands of a first-grader, a lush bouquet of gladioli growing from the very first-grader looks somewhat caricatured. Therefore, it is worth taking a closer look at such varieties that are little known in our country and have long been popular in the West, such as Minnie Mouse, Ling Toy, Amigo, Wakeru, Little Jade, Green.
A SIMPLE CURE FOR GLADIOLUS DISEASES
Every year I struggle with the main sore of gladioli - bacterial scab. Anything can cause this disease: either the earth will let you down, or the pests will try.
I dig up the tubers in the fall, and I look at them with small red-brown spots. Later, they will turn into brown stripes and hit the entire tuber.
I used to struggle with it like everyone else. The sores of the scab were cut out with a knife, and the wound was treated with a cotton swab with a solution of brilliant green.
And immediately before planting, she always kept the tuber in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 30 minutes. Of course, this all helps, and gladioli bloomed as expected. But as I dig up the bulbs in the fall - again the same story!
The agronomist advised planting diseased gladioli in soil fertilized with horse manure.
I collected horse manure in the spring in the village, mixed it with spruce needles in equal parts, added 1,5 cups of wood ash to the bucket of composition. In the garden, I made planting grooves 15 cm deep, and put a manure mixture on the bottom, with a layer of about 5 cm.
I planted gladioli in these holes. Courted as usual, and what do you think? In autumn, gladiolus corms turned out to be large, healthy and gave many babies.
Caterpillars that infect gladiolus must be collected at night by the light of a lantern (they are not noticeable during the day) and immediately destroyed.
© Author: L.I. SEREBRYAKOV, Tver
GLADIOLUS - ROYAL FLOWER
Gladiolus, in my opinion, is the king among all garden flowers. I love it for the variety of colors and majesty. I’ll tell you how I grow gladioli so that the flowers are large and the flower stalks are long.
A month before planting (in early April), I take out the corms from the refrigerator, where they winter on my vegetable shelf in a cloth bag, and clean them from scales. If on any corm I find small signs of the disease, I cut out the affected area to healthy tissue and cover the cut with brilliant green. I lay out the corms in a single layer with sprouts up in a box with low sides and leave at room temperature for germination.
I plant corms in early May in a sunny place, after preparing the bed. First, I scatter fertilizers: for 1 sq.m - 1 tbsp. a spoonful of urea, a handful of wood ash, 1 tbsp. a spoonful of double superphosphate. Then I dig up the soil and tamp the rake a little with the back side.
Before planting the corms, I soak them for half an hour in a solution of the Maxim preparation. Then I dry them and plant them at a distance of 15-25 cm from each other in a row (depending on the size of the bulbs) and between rows. The larger the corm, the greater the distance. Planting depth - 10-15 cm. It is convenient to make holes with a special device for planting turnips and flower bulbs.
Gladiolus love regular abundant watering (but without standing water in the garden) and loosening the soil. I also constantly carry out weeding, as weeds can provoke the appearance of fungal diseases.
Gladioli need to be fed. I spend the first dressing in the phase of 2-3 leaves - 2 tbsp. tablespoons of urea per 10 liters of water. The consumption of all fertilizers is 10 liters per 1 sq.m of beds. It is good to fertilize with boric acid during this period to obtain large corms. To do this, I dissolve 2 g of boric acid in 10 liters of water. The second time I feed in the phase of regrowth of the peduncle. To do this, in 10 liters of water I dissolve 1 tbsp. spoons of nitrophoska. The third top dressing - after the flowering of gladioli, it is carried out to prepare the bulbs for storage. For 5 liters of water I use 10 tbsp. a spoonful of crushed superphosphate, 1 tbsp. tablespoons of potassium sulfate and 2 g of potassium permanganate.
I dig up gladioli at the end of September in dry weather with a pitchfork to avoid damage to the corms. I lay it out in a dry place in one layer, dry it and cut off the stems with a sharp knife, leaving a stump of several centimeters. In order for the corms to be well stored, they must first be completely dried for a month at room temperature, the old bulb and roots should be removed.
Having done all this, I put the corms in a cloth bag and store them in the refrigerator in the vegetable compartment. I check them periodically during the winter.
© Author: Elena Kiryashina, Ulyanovsk Photo by the author
REFINED OF GLADIOLUS
My fascination with gladiolus began with a few corms.
Now it is already a collection of different varieties: Southern night. Jungle Flowers with red flowers: Russian beauty. Western Miss - pink: Madonna, Polar Bear. Swan - white; Greychaise Lady, Nastasya - crimson; Ochid Frost, Fairy Vision - lilac; Emerald Ripple. Green Star - green; 11casso - purple and others. I love them for their elegant appearance and lush flowering.
Gladiolus blooms profusely in sunny, wind-protected places with well-moistened fertile soil.
I prepare the site in advance, starting in the fall. I dig up the soil on the bayonet of a shovel. I bring in humus or compost (3 kg / sq.m). In the spring, as soon as
The subtleties of planting snow and the earth warms up slightly, I sprinkle the soil with wood ash and dig it up again.
In early May, I take out the bulbs from the cellar, clean them from scales and inspect them. If there are rotten ones, then I remove the damaged areas. I soak the planting material in a pink solution of potassium permanganate for 15-20 minutes.
I plant corms in rows to a depth of 10 cm at a distance of 10-15 cm.
The landing site is constantly changing. I return to the previous one no earlier than after 3 years.
The lack of moisture leads to weak development of roots and deformation of inflorescences, so I water gladioli often. After heavy rain, I loosen the soil to a depth of 3-5 cm and lightly spud the bushes. After flowering, watering is gradually stopped.
The first time I feed after the appearance of 2-3 leaves. For 10 liters of water - no 1 tbsp. urea and liquid fertilizer "Ideal". During the budding period, I fertilize Agricola No. 7 or Agricola Aqua. Fantasy for flowers ”(for 10 liters of water - 2 tablespoons). I water at the root.
I dig corms in October on a fine day. I cut the stem immediately, leaving no more than 1 cm from the growth point. I clean the planting material from the ground and dry it in a ventilated room (in the attic or in the barn). When drying corms should not come into contact with each other.
Then I put them for storage in the cellar at a temperature of + 6-10 degrees. During the winter I regularly check for diseases and pests. I delete the damaged ones.
© Author: Nadezhda STEPANOVA, Povorino, Voronezh region. Author's photo
COMMENTS OF THE SPECIALIST
In addition to lack of moisture, other factors can also affect the deformation of gladiolus peduncles: lack of calcium or excess nitrogen in the soil, shaded planting site, lack of stable fastening and good garter, as well as genetic features. Varieties differ both in the ability of cells to retain water, and in the ability to tolerate high and low air temperatures. Even climatic conditions, especially prolonged rains, can affect the development of the flower arrow.
© Author: Anatoly KISELEV, breeder, Balashikha, Moscow Region.
GLADIOLUS: GETTING READY FOR WINTER
The earlier in the fall you dig up gladioli corms, the lower the risk of damage to planting material by diseases and pests. It is also important to properly prepare plants for winter storage.
Rejection. When digging, set aside all suspicious bulbs, and immediately get rid of obviously diseased ones. If the condition of the plant, especially its foliage, indicates the presence of any disease or pest damage, and the bulb itself looks strong and healthy, discard it as well. It is possible that problems will soon arise with the planting material.
Performing the shaping. Trim the aerial part and roots to 1 cm from the corm. For large specimens, remove the old corm immediately. Soak the planting material for 30 minutes in a pink solution of potassium permanganate.
Let's return to the suspicious bulbs. Inspect them carefully again. If you notice small “bites” on the bulbs of gladioli, and their surface has become rough, the planting material is most likely damaged by thrips. Of course, it is best to get rid of such specimens. But for the sake of experiment, you can soak them for 5 minutes in Actellik solution (2 g per 1 liter of water). Dry and store such plants separately, as far as possible from healthy gladioli. Treat the remaining bulbs set aside when sorting with Fitosporin solution (according to the instructions). Keep them in a different place too. In the spring it will become clear whether the suspicious bulbs are suitable for planting.
Drying. Dry the corms outdoors in the shade, such as under a canopy, for three days. Then put them in fabric bags, transfer them to a well-heated room (+25...+30 degrees) and hang dry them for 2-3 weeks. Afterwards, send the gladioli to a room with a temperature of at least +18 degrees for a month.
Storage. The laying of corms for the winter usually occurs at the beginning of November. The optimal storage temperature is +5…+6 degrees. If you don't have a cellar or basement, place gladioli on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator.
© Author: Anna MARTYNENKO, biologist
LANDING THE GLADIOLUSES STEP-BY-STEP - VIDEO
© Author: L. KLEYMENOVA, florist
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