ARE THERE OTHER COLUMN-SHAPED TREES OTHER THAN APPLE?
On the Internet, you can find many ads for the sale of columnar apple trees, pears, cherries, cherries. They even offer columnar red currants. Let me tell you a "secret": only apple trees can be truly columnar.
IT ALL STARTED WITH ... KIDNEY
How did the columnar form of fruit trees appear?
This is a genetic mutation that once originated in Canada in a single bud on a Macintosh apple tree. Subsequently, in the course of selection work, all the columnar forms of the apple tree originated from it.
Among other breeds of fruit plants, there are still no truly columnar plants!
FACT: COLUMN-SHAPED APPLES ARE EXCLUSIVELY, WITH STRICTLY DEFINED VARIETIES: MOSCOW NECKLACE. PRESIDENT, CHERVONETS, MEDOK. THERE IS NO COLUMN-SHAPED ANTONOV. WHITE FILLER. STRIFFEL.
COLUMN PEACHES CHERRY AND PEACH THIS IS A DECEPTION!
There are so-called compact forms. What is their feature? Firstly, trees of this shape have a cypress-like crown, that is, compressed, very narrow. Secondly, most of the plants of these varieties are thermophilic and suffer greatly in the climate of the middle zone (they often freeze out in the open field in the first unsuccessful winter).
TIP: The distance between the "columns" when planting in a row (the so-called "fruit wall") is from 70 cm to 1 m.
What do unscrupulous nursery breeders actually offer when they claim that sell columnar peach, cherry, pear?
Modern science has reached such a development that it is able, at some stage, to regulate the growth and development of a tree with the help retardants (translated as retarders). The seedlings treated with them stop branching and for some period retain their columnar shape.
But over time, without the use of these substances, the plant begins to branch, as nature intended for it, and as a result we get a classic spreading tree (but this is at best). Alas, retardants are not affordable for all nursery breeders, and some replace them with herbicides (in low concentration).
And the plant also stops branching for a while, but only because it is sick. And if it does not die, then in 2-3 years, when the herbicide is washed out of the tree, it will start to sprout side branches, returning to its original form.
TIP: When planting columnar apple trees, immediately place a stake next to it. Their root system is compact, but weak. The older the “column”, the more difficult it is for it to stay in the soil. A stake is necessary for each tree, especially when it begins to bear fruit.
ROOF FOR COLUMNS
When buying a columnar apple tree, ask which rootstock the seedling has. On vigorous and medium-sized rootstocks, such plants give a lot of energy to growth. As a result, you will get a gorgeous "column" 3-4 m high, but this growth force is at the expense of fruiting (accordingly, the yield will be low).
"Column" on a vigorous seed stock begins to bear fruit late. By this time, this is usually a tree 3-4 m high (or even higher), with apples only at the top. It doesn't suit us either.
Therefore, all columnar apple trees should be grafted exclusively on dwarf rootstocks, for example, 62-396 or 54-118, which are most adapted to the climate conditions of the middle zone. In the south of Belarus and Russia, in Ukraine, stocks of English selection are suitable, for example, M9 or MM 106 (in the middle lane, their roots freeze slightly during a cold, snowless winter).
FORMATION OF COLUMN TREES
Some amateur gardeners believe that the "column" does not branch at all. This is not entirely true. It forms twigs, but small, and they can be removed, especially when they intensively begin to overtake the conductor. They are removed, new ones grow to replace them, they are also removed after 3-4 years. The main condition, if you want to preserve the beautiful columnar shape of the tree, is not to damage the apical bud, in no case cut off the conductor.
© Author: Yuliya KONDRATENOK, Phytopathologist Breeder, Cand. agricultural sciences
Below other entries on the topic "Dacha and garden - with their own hands"
- Caring for columnar trees - the correct formation of a "column" - my advice (Orenburg)
- Dwarf and trellis gardening - history and development. Dusen and Paradise.
- Dwarf apple trees for Siberia
- Colon-shaped trees - planting care and shaping
- Pros and cons of dwarf trees and gardens of such forms
- Productivity - the quantity and quality of fruits in a trellis garden with dwarf trees
- Dwarf and semi-dwarf apple trees - pros and cons., Reviews of sciences
- Column-shaped pears - reviews of a professional gardener
- When dwarf trees begin to yield in the trellis garden
- We make chatali (props) for fruit trees
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