WHAT IS MONILIOSIS AND HOW IT IS COMPLETELY SUCCESSFULLY FIGHT WITH IT. PREPARATIONS
The combination of a warm winter, early but rainy and cold spring caused a sharp outbreak of stone fruit diseases in 2019, primarily moniliosis.
Moniliosis is caused by fungi of the genus Monilinia, different species of which infect pome and stone fruit crops. We have three species of these mushrooms from the ascomycete group. Monilinia fructigenawhich amazes apple and pear, Monilinia cinerea - stone fruit parasite... They suffer the most from it apricot, cherry, sweet cherry, plum... Can amaze peach and cherry plum... Monilinia cydonia, the third species of this genus, is striking quince.
Moniliosis on fruit trees manifests itself in two forms - spring and summer. In the spring it is a monilial burn of the shoots, and in the summer it is fruit rot.
The spring form is more typical of Monilinia cinerea and is often found on apricots. At the same time, on apple and pear trees, moniliosis manifested itself a few years ago in the form of fruit rot in July-August. However, over the past few years, we have seen the development of the spring form of the disease affecting fruit shoots in unstable apple varieties, for example 'Antonovka'.
The development of moniliosis is facilitated by damp weather with sharp temperature jumps and cold snaps. That is why such a significant outbreak of apricot moniliosis was observed in the spring of this year in Kiev.
From decorative crops, moniliosis can affect hawthorn, bird cherry and chokeberry, but it is not too harmful for them.
The causative agents of moniliosis are one of the typical symbionts of bacteria of the genus Ervinia - causative agents of fire blight. These microorganisms intensify the course of the disease and contribute to its spread.
See also: Monilioz (photo) - how to treat?
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF MONILIOSIS
In spring, the disease manifests itself in the browning and drying of flowers, young shoots and leaves. In this case, the fruit twigs and shoots of the current year can dry out completely. A dying shoot is often as if covered with varnish - a transparent dried gum that stands out from microcracks in the bark. In the case of very humid and moderately warm weather, the formation of gray bubbles - conidial sporulation can be observed on the affected inflorescences and shoots.
As a rule, infection with spring moniliosis occurs during flowering of fruits. Most often, apricots, almonds, cherry plums, plums suffer from spring moniliosis. Moniliosis spreads at lightning speed throughout the garden. As a rule, from the moment of infection to the appearance of the first wilting shoots and drooping inflorescences, it takes from 3 to 8 days, although the incubation period can be delayed up to two weeks.
The source of infection is mummified fruits lying on the ground and remaining in trees. With the onset of warm and humid weather, they become covered with abundant conidial sporulation. In addition, the fungus hibernates well in the tissues of the affected shoots that remained on the tree until spring.
Monilinia spores spread to healthy plants with the help of wind and water, insects. Shoots with cracks, frost holes, wounds are especially vulnerable to the fungus. Lesions of the thin young bark serve as a gateway for infection. In this case, the disease develops very quickly.
As a rule, the wilting of new shoots stops at the beginning of summer, with a steady warming, after which the active development of new growths begins.
In the summer, the disease affects the fruits. On cherries, apricots, plums, it is brown fruit rot with gray specks scattered on the skin - sources of fungal spores. In the early affected ovaries, no bone is formed, they rot and fall off. In addition, sometimes, if the summer is very damp, a second wave of damage to the shoots can develop when they reach a length of 30-40 cm. The fruits affected in the second half of summer, especially plums, can rot after removal. If they remain on the tree, they quickly dry out and mummify. In such fruits, monilinia hibernates as a mycelium and serves as a source of infection next year. On apple, pear and quince in our zone, it is the summer form of moniliosis that is more characteristic. Apples and pears turn brown with characteristic ring patterns of sporangia. Later, the fruits dry up and turn black. If not removed, such fruits also remain overwintering on trees, spreading the spores of the fungus.
HOW TO FIGHT MONILIOSIS?
As with other plant diseases, when combating moniliosis, it is necessary to combine chemical treatments and agrotechnical measures.
First of all, all damaged fruits and shoots should be carefully removed. The pruner is periodically disinfected, and hands are washed with a disinfectant.
All damaged areas and cuts must be treated with a 3% solution of copper sulfate, dried and covered with garden varnish.
The first treatment is carried out before flowering, and the second - in late May - early June.
In addition, when shoots or fruits with signs of moniliosis appear, they are removed, and the trees are again treated with fungicides. In the summer, Skor, Teldor (Magnicur Guard), Magnicur (Flint) Star, Magnicur (Luna) Senseishen are effective.
You can also use preparations of hydroxide, copper oxychloride. For example, Bordeaux mixture, HOM, Kuproksat, Gart, Medyan Extra. But in this case, treatments must be carried out every 10 days and it is imperative to use an adhesive, because contact preparations are easily washed off by rain and do not protect new plant growth.
Of biological fungicides, a solution of the drug Baikal, Fitosporin and Trichodermin are quite effective. It is best to alternate these preparations with copper fungicides. Therefore, every heavy rain is a reason to re-treat the plants.
PLODOZHORKI - "FAITHFUL FRIENDS" OF MONILINS
Controlling moths is necessary, since these insects are the most active carriers of monilinia. In addition, the spores of the fungus best penetrate into damaged fruits, with skin wounds and bites, the main source of which is the moth.
Therefore, it is imperative to carry out measures to combat the eastern and apple moths. In July-August, the second generation of these insects and the development of caterpillars on winter varieties of apple and pear are observed. Therefore, the timely treatment of late varieties of pome fruits with insecticides is a great idea. Insecticides such as Angio, Calypso, Ampligo, Match are well suited for this. The latter is a new generation drug that blocks the synthesis of insect molting hormones. Effective Proclay, which has an ovicidal effect and is well suited for the destruction of caterpillars of the first instar, during the period when they actively move through the plant, settling in the fruits.
Supporters of organic farming can use Aktofit (6 ml per 10 liters of water) or Lepidocid, a preparation containing bacteria that cause the death of caterpillars.
The release of natural enemies of moths is effective - gabrobragon, trichogramma, although it is better to carry it out during flowering of fruit crops or at the end of May.
THE BEST TREATMENT OF MONILIOSIS IS PREVENTION
It is imperative to timely and correctly feed plants with moniliosis. With an excess of nitrogen, growth is sharply accelerated, but the immunity of the tree is reduced. In this case, the use of phosphorus, potash and calcium fertilizers will help. Their use is especially important in the second half of summer, when preparing plants for wintering. Well lignified, ripe shoots will be affected by fungal diseases much weaker.
An important point is strict adherence to the terms of processing and feeding of plants - if everything is done correctly, the disease does not allow to develop and cause significant damage.
Be sure to remove all affected fruits as soon as moniliosis becomes noticeable on them. In no case should they be left on the tree!
In addition, do not forget in autumn, when harvesting fruits, to carefully remove all affected fruits, remove dried and affected shoots. Composting such plant residues destroys the causative agent of moniliosis. Of course, it is better if the compost has access to oxygen, and the biomass is processed by microorganisms - organic destructors. And, of course, the foliage of the trees is collected in a compost heap or embedded in the soil.
Remember, prevention is the best treatment.
Timely processed, on time and balanced feeding, reasonably pruned trees practically do not create problems for their owner, delighting him with a healthy look and bountiful harvest.
© Author: Vladimir Kiryushin, Ph. 6.N.
TREATMENT OF APPLE MONILIOSIS. PEARS AND PLUMS - VIDEO
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