HOW TO GROW APRICOT IN THE MIDDLE STRIP?
It is generally accepted that apricot is a southern culture. This is not entirely true. In Russia, for example, the assortment of apricots is represented by varieties obtained mainly from 3 types of apricots: ordinary (South European and Central Asian subspecies), Siberian and Manchurian. The common apricot is distinguished by a higher taste of fruits than the Manchurian and Siberian apricots, but it is less winter-hardy. Another feature: the Central Asian apricot has a long period of winter dormancy, so this apricot blooms later, avoiding late spring frosts.
Apricot came to the more northern regions of Russia thanks to I.V. Michurin. Using the forms of Manchurian apricot and its other species, he created winter-hardy fruitful varieties Tovarishch, Satser, Best Michurinsky for central Russia. Mongol and others.
Further breeding work on the breeding of cold-resistant apricots was continued by breeders H.K. Enikeev, A.N. Venyaminov, M.M. Ulyanishchev and others. As a result, such adaptive varieties as Triumph Severny, Artem, Rossoshanskiy Krasavets and others were obtained. A huge contribution to the creation of an assortment of apricots near Moscow was made by employees of the GBS them. N.V. Tsitsin RAS A.K. Skvortsov and L.A. Kramarenko. Apricot pits brought from Kyrgyzstan were sown in the Moscow Botanical Garden, then a rigorous selection of plants was carried out for several generations, and as a result, scientists have created many frost-resistant and high-quality fruit varieties: Tsarsky, Alyosha, Favorit, Phoenix, Zeus and others.
And although apricot varieties for the middle lane are remarkable in many ways, they have two big disadvantages that you need to be aware of.
1. A short period of deep dormancy in winter.
Because of this, during the thaw period, flower buds can wake up already in December, and when frost sets in, they can be severely damaged. Therefore, it is better to grow apricots in elevated areas where frosts are weaker. These areas should be well lit by the sun and protected from northerly and northeasterly winds, with light, humus-fertilized soil.
2. Heating the bark of the root collar in regions with mild and snowy winters.
To avoid this, it is better to plant apricot seedlings in places where little snow accumulates. For example, at a great distance from buildings and a fence (there is less snow there). If you can't find such a place, plant the apricot on artificially piled earth mounds. Prevent snow from falling on thawed soil. If there is still a lot of snow, especially in the middle or late winter, then start trampling it around the tree.
But the safest way to grow apricots is in the crown of winter-hardy skeletons - for example, in the crown of trees of the thorny varieties bred in the Tatar Research Institute of Agriculture (Tenkovskaya Dove. Rakitovaya, etc.). Also, an apricot in the form of grafted branches feels good in the crowns of yellow-fruited plums Malakhovskaya yellow, Renklod Leah and other winter-hardy varieties.
To protect against sunburn, it is very important in autumn and spring to whitewash the trunks and bases of skeletal branches, and even better - whole trees. To do this, you can use a ready-made garden squirrel, or you can cook it yourself. The recipe is as follows: mix freshly slaked lime, mullein and clay in equal proportions, then dilute in water until creamy. While constantly stirring, this mixture is applied to the wood. It is advisable to add copper sulfate to any whitewash.
To insulate and protect the boles and the bases of the skeletal branches from rodents, they should be tied with spruce branches with needles down. In no case should you use polyethylene, roofing felt, stockings and other materials that impede the breathing of the bark for strapping.
During the growing season, the soil in the near-stem circle of the apricot must be kept free of weeds, loose and moderately moist. By the beginning of August, watering is reduced, and then stopped altogether.
Apricot in the middle lane is susceptible to diseases that affect the leaves, flowers, fruits and skeletal branches of the tree. The most harmful are moniliosis, clasterosporium disease, cytosporosis. To combat them, 1% Bordeaux liquid is used: in the spring - along the swelling buds, in the fall - after leaf fall. Preventive measures: cleaning wounds, disinfecting them, puttingty, cleaning dead bark, collecting all carrion and diseased fruits and destroying them (burning, burying them in the ground), collecting and destroying diseased leaves, periodically disinfecting the entire tree with the necessary preparations or lime.
As for the pests, they are the same for the apricot as for the plum. These are aphids, moths, moths and others. Timely treatment of the tree with insecticides, removal of all diseased branches and shoots, as well as wintering insects, followed by their burning, will prevent the spread of pests.
BEST APRICOT VARIETIES FOR THE MIDDLE STRIP
Tsarsky. Fruits weighing 21-23 g, rounded-oval with a pubescent yellow skin of medium thickness, slightly covered with a blush. The pulp is tasty, aromatic, juicy, tender, with a well-lagging bone. Fruits ripen early - in early August. The flowers are large. Yearly yields range from medium to high. Medium sized trees - 3-4 m tall.
Alyosha. Differs in the earliest ripening of fruits: in late July - early August.
Their mass is 15-20 g. The shape is rounded, slightly flattened from the sides. The skin is slightly pubescent, bright yellow, toasty. The pulp is orange, tasty, dense, with a large bone. The yield is high. The tree is medium-sized with a rounded crown, up to 4 m high. The flowers are large, 3,7-4 cm in diameter, pinkish, very beautiful. In autumn, the tree also looks decorative thanks to its cross-crimson leaves.
Northern Triumph. Received at the All-Russian Research Institute of Horticulture. I.V. Michurin in 1938 A.N. Venyaminov by hybridization of Krasnoshchekiy and Zabaikalskiy northern early varieties.
Medium ripening. Winter hardiness is very high. Relatively resistant to you. Slobo is affected by diseases and pests. Harvestable. Universal. The trees are medium-sized. Fruits are medium (up to 45 g), flat-round, slightly asymmetrical. Orange peel with pink blush. The pulp is yellow, juicy. The taste is excellent. The stone is large. The seeds are sweet.
Phoenix. Fruits 21-23 g, rounded, laterally compressed, with slight pubescence and shine. The pulp is orange, of pleasant taste, dense, with a well-lagging stone. The tree is medium-sized - 3-4 m, with a wide-pyramidal crown. The flowers are large, up to 4 cm.
© Author: I. VOROPAEVA
Reference by topic: Cultivation of apricot in the middle lane
WHY APRICOT FLOWERS BUT DOESN'T BEAR FRUIT?
This question never ceases to be asked by our readers. And all because it occurs very often.
The first situation: there are ovaries, but they fall off... This is usually due to a lack of moisture or nutrients in the tree. The tree tries to survive and at the same time gets rid of everything unnecessary - that is, from the ovary.
Therefore, be sure to water the tree during the growing season and fertilize. But only on time! The first watering can be combined with the first top dressing and carried out before flowering. The fertilizer must contain nitrogen. For example, feed with urea or liquid manure, you can use specialized mineral fertilizers. The second watering with top dressing should be 2-3 weeks after the end of flowering. In no case during the flowering period itself! And again, this is fertilizing with a nitrogen-containing fertilizer.
Spend the third feeding and watering during the period when the ovaries grow a little. Complex fertilizer (nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus) or separately - urea, potassium sulfate, superphosphate. It is possible with trace elements.
The fourth top dressing is after harvesting with potassium and phosphorus. At this time, flower buds of the next year are formed.
Watering is necessary during drought periods, and it is necessary to soak the land to a great depth.
The second situation: the ovary is not formed at all... Why? Firstly, it must be remembered that most apricot varieties are self-defeating, that is, they do not form ovaries without a pollinator. Therefore, it is advisable to plant 2 or more trees at once. But what if the site is small? So plant two apricot seedlings of different varieties in one planting hole. You will get such a double-stemmed tree, the branches will intertwine, and pollination will be ensured. And if you know how to graft, then graft the branches of pollinating varieties into the crown. Or plant a self-fertile variety, such as Red Cheeked.
Third situation: incorrect pruning of apricot... Apricot bears fruit on last year's growth. Therefore, if you are going to prune an apricot, try not to prune short annual branches that will be harvested.
The fourth situation: the flower buds are frozen and there is no harvest... Remember that apricot has a short period of physiological rest? Flower buds can wake up in a thaw and then freeze. Try this technique. In summer, in June, cut long annual shoots by half or one third. Buds will wake up in the leaf axils, new shoots will grow from them, on which flower buds will lie. And these buds will bloom next year 2 weeks later than the main flowering occurs. So they can get away from return frosts, and from the second wave of flowering you will still get a harvest.
A couple more techniques that allow you to increase the yield: bend the long lower shoots to a horizontal position (this way more flower buds are laid) and normalize the harvest (it happens that in some year the tree breaks under the yoke of the fruit, this depletes it, and the next harvest year you may not wait at all).
Apricot fruits contain a lot of sugars, organic acids, pectin substances, as well as vitamins, catechins, anthocyanins and many other useful substances. For example, the presence of potassium salts makes it possible to use fresh and dried fruits (dried apricots) for dietary litany of patients with cardiovascular and renal diseases.
Apricots, like peaches, have a higher content of easily digestible iron compared to other fruits. Therefore, they are included in the diet of patients with low hemoglobin. Many valuable products are obtained from apricot fruits: dried fruits, apricot juice with pulp, dessert compote, preserves, jam. In addition to the fruit pulp, they also eat a sweet kernel, which is used as a substitute for almonds. Bitter kernels are highly regarded in pharmacology.
APRICOTS IN THE MIDDLE STRIP - GROWING. VIDEO
© Author: E. GLAGOLEVA
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