USSURIAN PLUM - VARIETIES, LANDING AND CARE
The basis of the assortment of plums in the south of Russia, in the Central Black Earth regions and the Central region are varieties of domestic plums. As we move eastwards - in the Urals, in the Altai Territory, Western and Eastern Siberia, in the Far East - varieties obtained with the participation of the Ussuri plum prevail. In the gardens of Siberia and the Far East, the Ussuri plum is the leading fruit crop.
The Ussuri plum is a slender tree 3-5 m high, with a dense branched crown. Shoots glabrous, reddish brown. The leaves are pointed, bright green, of various shapes - from rounded-oval to lanceolate. Early flowering and very abundant. The flowers are small, usually 2-3 in one bud, bloom simultaneously with the leaves.
Fruiting mainly on short branches of bouquet, partly on annual growth. Fruits are small (from 5 g to 16 g), round, oval, from greenish yellow to dark red and even dark purple. The pulp is juicy, tender, fibrous, of pleasant taste, but due to the rough and tart skin, the quality of the fruit is worse than that of homemade plum. The stone is often fused with the pulp.
Ussuri plum is not found in the wild. Presumably, it was brought to the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories from China or Korea many centuries ago. Some scientists attribute the Ussuri plum to the type of Chinese plum, while others distinguish it as an independent species. There is no doubt that the Ussuri plum has a lot in common with the Chinese, from which it probably originated. Supporters of the existence of the Ussuri plum as an independent species note its significantly higher winter hardiness. In everyday life, the Ussuri plum is often called eastern.
+ ADVANTAGES OF THE USSURIAN PLUM
1. Skoroplodnost... In oriental plums, flower buds are formed even on annual growths. As a consequence of this, you can harvest the first crop as early as 2-3 years after planting this plum. Note that the home plum begins to bear fruit only in the 3-4th year.
2. Prolonged period of fruit consumption (more than 2 months)... Different varieties of the Ussuri plum have different ripening periods. The earliest bear fruit at the end of July, the latest at the end of September. If you choose the varieties wisely, then you will enjoy the fruits all summer and the beginning of autumn.
3. High yield... Flower buds are laid in huge numbers. Several times more
than a homemade plum. Of course, this is only a potential yield, because the buds may not bloom or the ovaries may not form or fall off, which will reduce the yield. But with good conditions and care, you can expect high yields.
4. Beautiful and sweet fruits... Yes, they are sweeter than homemade plums, and some have an apricot flavor. And they are also fragrant. And the variety of colors is very pleasing: from sunny yellow and greenish to burgundy and even purple.
5. High winter hardiness... In the harsh winters, the Ussuri plum in the conditions of Minusinsk withstood frosts up to 55 °, after which it bloomed beautifully and gave good yields. Studies have shown that the varieties of the Ussuri plum tolerate frosts well with a gradual decrease in temperature. In the middle lane, frosts of 40 ° are not terrible for varieties of this species (I must say that there are such severe frosts here infrequently, 3-4 times in 100 years).
- DISADVANTAGES OF THE USSURIAN PLUM
1. Short rest period... Thaws for the Ussuri plum are much more dangerous than frosts. At this time, the kidneys may wake up, and subsequent frosts will destroy them. In this case, there is no need to wait for the harvest this year.
2. Early flowering... Here again the risk of kidney damage increases during the return period of spring frosts. True, with a prolonged flowering period, only a part of the flowers often falls under frost, and this does not significantly affect the size of the yield.
3. Exposure to damping of the root collar... In the middle lane, the trees of the Ussuri plum can suffer and even die due to the fact that during the thaw period the bark and cambium of the root collar suffer from damping. In addition, the eastern plum does not tolerate stagnant water. Think in advance how you will wick moisture away from plantings. Another tip: to avoid the bark damping out, plant the varieties of the Ussuri plum on reliable stem and skeleton formers. Good results were obtained when growing varieties of oriental plum on the slope, which tolerates waterlogged soil well.
In addition to the blackthorn, you can use the hybrids Eurasia 43 and Eurasia 21. It is advisable to inoculate at a higher level in order to once again insure the varieties of the Ussuri plum from damping out of the bark. In order to grow this plum on your own trunk, choose the varieties that are suitable for your region and are most resistant to damping. For example, for the middle lane these are the Red Ball and Skoroplodnaya varieties.
4. Self-infertility and the need to select pollinators. Most varieties of oriental plums are self-fertile. Therefore, plant at least 2 varieties of this species at a distance of 3-4 m from each other. Or plant a hybrid cherry plum variety as a pollinator. Home plum with Ussuri plum is not pollinated. By the way, many gardeners in the middle lane complain about poor fruiting of the eastern plum, and the reason is precisely that there is no pollinator. If there is not enough space on the site, then the branches of the pollinator variety can be grafted into the crown.
We also recommend reading: Protection of plums from drying out by the example of the Ussuriysk plum (Novosibirsk)
VARIETIES OF USSURIAN PLUM FOR DIFFERENT REGIONS
On the basis of the Ussuri plum, many scientific institutions in Russia have created a number of varieties for different regions. Note that in the State Register of Breeding Achievements, these varieties are listed as varieties of Chinese plum.
The Skoroplodnaya and Krasny Shar varieties have been created for the Central Region by the All-Russian Selection Technological Institute of Horticulture and Pets (VSTISP, Moscow). The same varieties are approved for reproduction in the Far East. For the Central Black Earth Region (VNIISPK, Orel) varieties Alenushka, Krasa Orlovshchina, Orlovskaya Dream, etc. have been bred. For the Ural region, the Sverdlovsk Horticultural Selection Station (SSSS, Yekaterinburg) has created varieties Zavet, Pionerka, Cooperation, etc. -Siberian and East Siberian regions approved for cultivation and reproduction of the variety VNIIS Siberia named after M.A. Lisavenko (Barnaul) Goryanka, Ksenia, Memory of Putov, Timoshka, Chemalskaya blue, etc. As well as the Buryat Research Institute of Agriculture (Ulan-Ude) Amtatai, Va-ulinskaya, Neznakomka, Nakhodka of Buryatia, etc. (the village of Vostochnoye, Khabarovsk Territory), the varieties Podarok Primorye, Rassvet Early, Tikhookeanskaya, Khabarovskaya Rannaya and others have been created.
THE BEST VARIETIES AND NEWS OF USSURIAN PLUM
The novelties include the variety included in the State Register in 2019 - Tsyganochka (Federal State Unitary Enterprise Gornoaltayskoye, Gorno-Altaisk, selection of M.N. Matyunin). Zoned for the East Siberian region. Winter hardiness, incl. and flower buds, high. The trees are medium-sized with a round, compact crown. Flowers appear first and they are very beautiful - pink, and a little later burgundy leaves bloom. In a word, the tree is very decorative. Fruits weighing 9-10 g, round, almost black, and a thick waxy bloom gives them a dark blue color. The pulp is fleshy, raspberry, freshly sweet, the stone is small and very easily separated. Enters fruiting early, average yield. Ripening early (early August) and amicable. Not damaged by the moth.
One of the most delicious varieties is Alyonushka (selection of VNIISPK, Orel). Included in
State Register for the Central Black Earth Region. The variety is obtained by crossing the Red Shar and Chinese varieties. The tree is medium-sized, 2-2,5 m high. The crown is pyramidal, raised, of medium density. Fruits weighing 30-35 g, round, dark red with orange, juicy, cartilaginous pulp, tender, sweet and sour (4,8 points) and colorless juice. Productivity 10 kg per tree. It blooms in early May, and the fruits ripen on August 15-20. Begins fruiting early, in the 3rd year. The variety is self-fertile, Skoroplodnaya and other varieties of Chinese and Russian plums are considered good pollinators. Relatively resistant to clasterosporium and moniliosis. Young shoots are damaged by aphids.
The Ksenia variety is famous for its unpretentiousness, productivity and beautiful fruits. The variety was bred by selection among seedlings from free pollination of the Krasny Shar variety in the V.N. M. A. Lisavenko M. N. Matyunin. Zoned for the West Siberian region. The tree is medium-sized, with a paniculate crown. The fruits are large (35 g), oval and round. The main color is yellow, the integumentary color is claret red. The pulp is whitish-yellow, fibrous, sweet and sour, good taste (4,5 points). A variety of universal use. Productivity is high, but fruiting is irregular. Winter hardiness of the tree and fruit buds is satisfactory, not resistant to damping.
Frosya (VNIIS Siberia named after M.A.Lisovenko) is included in the State Register for the East Siberian region in 2016. It has a high winter hardiness of flower buds and the resistance of flowers to spring frost, but at a young age it can undergo damping. The trees are weak with a drooping crown, it is convenient to look after them. Fruits are medium (weighing 15 g), flat-rounded, violet-claret, fresh-sweet, almost not damaged by the moth. Quickly begins to bear fruit and increases the yield. The average ripening period is mid-August.
Testament (selection of the Sverdlovsk SS, Yekaterinburg). Seedling from free pollination of the Manchurian beauty variety. The tree is medium-sized, 3-4 m, the crown is spreading. Fruits are wide-rounded, large (weighing 25-30 g), with dry separation. The main color is yellow, the integumentary color is with a slight blush. The pulp is yellow, granular, dense, juicy. The taste is excellent (4,7 points), sweet and sour. Flowering later, in the second half of May (therefore, it escapes frost). Fruits ripen later (late August - early September). The yield is 15-30 kg per tree, the maximum is 45 kg with a planting pattern of 3 × 4 m.
PLUM USSURI GARDENER REVIEWS AND CARE TIPS
USSURIAN PLUM: FEATURES OF CARE
Many years ago Tatyana SOLOVEY took over the baton of studying the Ussuri plum from her father A.G. Kudryavtsev, an experienced gardener, lecturer and author of books on gardening. She told about this plant.
Ussuri plums almost do not require shaping; in the spring, only sanitary pruning is needed. But after bountiful harvests, the old branches begin to dry out for several years. Without timely pruning, the tree begins to die off. Therefore, at the first signs of aging, I shorten the branches above the nearest lateral branch on 3-5-year-old wood. After 5-6 years, I repeat the procedure. This is how I constantly rejuvenate the aboveground part of the plum.
Most of the harvest is concentrated on the one-year growth, so it is advisable not to shorten it.
Ussuri plums, when freezing or aging, form abundant root shoots. And the further it is from the root collar, the better its root system. This is an excellent planting material that completely repeats the parental qualities. The shoots can be buried during transplantation (up to 10 cm). Fruiting will begin from the 5th year.
In spring, the Ussuri plums bloom early, before the foliage blooms. At this time, there are often frosts. They are dangerous only when the air temperature is negative (smoke, sprinkling will help). Frost on the soil will not harm the flowers.
In nature, the Ussuri plum grows on a rather poor land. Large doses of manure cause rapid growth of shoots, which is why hordes of aphids attack the juicy tops. In addition, the winter hardiness of the tree decreases on oily soil: in the short summer in our region, a lot of water remains in the plant, which, freezing in winter, tears the cells of the tree. On poor land, the shoots have time to mature well, and the water is converted into plastic substances. Such a plant both winters and bears fruit.
Plum loves light and moisture, in summer it drops all fruits in drought. But at the same time it does not tolerate the close occurrence of groundwater and wetlands. It grows poorly on acidic soil.
Due to the superficial location of the roots, I do not loosen the earth in the near-trunk circle, but mulch it with fallen leaves, straw, chopped branches.
© Author: Tatiana SOLOVEY, Novosibirsk. Photo by the author
PLUM USSURI - VIDEO
© Author: A. PETRENKO, agronomist
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