GROWING PEARS IN THE MIDDLE LAND, IN SIBERIA AND IN THE URALS
Pear is one of the most beloved and popular fruit trees. True, it frightens many with the complexity of growing. But everything is not as difficult as it might seem, especially for a novice gardener. You just need to know some important points.
So, you have purchased a seedling. Or just going. In this case, pay attention to the choice of the variety for your region; when buying, try to find out on which rootstock the variety is grafted. Examine the roots - there should be a lot of them, no breaks or rot. And if the seedling is sold with an open root system, then there should be no leaves.
That is, you need to acquire a plant either in early spring or in autumn, after leaf fall. Now you can buy only seedlings in pots or by coming directly to the nursery, where the plant will be dug out of the ground in front of you and the root system will be well packed.
It is important to know which variety you are purchasing, they are self-fertile (for example, in Memory of Yakovlev, Memory of Timofeev, Tenderness, Grand Champion, Banquet) or self-infertile (Bergamot autumn, Favorite Clappa, Irista, Curé, Bere Dil, Nart - not every year they give their own pollen, so they need a pollinator). For autumn bergamot, the varieties Bessemyanka, Tonkovotka are suitable as pollinators, for Favorite Klapp - Bere Boek, Bere Beyk, Bon, Louise, for Irista - Nika, Fairy, Dessertnaya Rossoshanskaya, for Curé - Winter decanca, autumn decanca, Bon Louise. But even if the variety is self-fertile, with cross-pollination, the yield can increase, which means that it makes sense to always plant more than one pear tree nearby.
Landing time is also best taken seriously. In the southern regions, for example, this crop is strongly discouraged from planting in the spring, because the heat quickly sets in, and the newly planted tree is very sensitive to drying out of the soil.
Therefore, in the south, try to plant a pear in the fall, water it well, and for the next season, carefully monitor the soil moisture: water abundantly at least once a week, and sometimes twice a week. In other regions, it can also be planted in spring if it is long enough and it rains regularly.
When choosing a landing site, keep in mind that the pear is light and thermophilic. Of course, it will bear fruit in a little shade, but the fruits will be tastier, and the yield is higher if the lighting is excellent. And try to find a place protected from the winds.
The size of the planting pit depends on how fertile the soil is. If it is sandy, then it is better to dig a hole deeper and wider, 80 × 80 cm, and fill it with humus. On loams, it can be smaller, 50-60 cm in depth and diameter. At the very beginning, the seedling needs a good start, so it is worth paying special attention to refueling the planting pit.
When planting, the root collar should be at ground level (plant at the same level as the seedling grows in the container). If you buy a seedling with an open root system, then determine the root collar yourself - this is the place from where the first upper roots begin to grow.
The distance between the seedlings should be such that the trees in adulthood only slightly touch the crowns, or more. Here you have to take into account what kind of tree you are planting, what kind of rootstock (vigorous, weak), what kind. The vigorous ones are seed (seedlings of local varieties of pears). Weak - clonal (modern ones are PG-2, PG-17-16, PG-12, M9). A distance of 3-5 m is left between plants on vigorous rootstocks, on low-growing ones - 4-2 m.
After planting a seedling, water it abundantly. It is convenient to pour water into the still open planting hole with a seedling installed in it, so the soil is better wetted. And after that, the pit is filled up and watered again. This is necessary not only to keep the entire soil around the root system of the seedling moist, but also to remove air voids and ensure maximum contact of the roots with the soil.
For watering, I recommend using sodium humate, which perfectly stimulates the development of the root system and helps the seedlings to take root well in a new place.
After the planting hole has been filled up and watered, the trunk circle must be mulched, for example, with mown grass or incompletely rotted compost.
Maintain the correct crown height and size by trimming. It is best not to let the pear grow taller than 3 m, otherwise caring for and harvesting it becomes difficult.
Another important point. Conifers should not grow near pears. They acidify the soil and weaken the growth of pears, and the juniper serves as an intermediate host for such a dangerous fungal disease as rust. Moreover, the juniper itself does not suffer, but it is the pear that is affected.
And a few words about harvesting. The pear has very fragile wood. Therefore, do not step on the branches with your feet if the tree is tall and you have to climb up a ladder. And do not jerk the fruit - the branch can also easily break off. Take the fruit with one hand, hold the branch with the other and gently unscrew it along with the stalk.
GROWING PEARS IN SIBERIA AND IN THE URALS
Gardeners are wary of growing pears in Siberia and the Urals. It is believed that this is a southern culture, and only lukashki are suitable for harsh conditions. But these are old varieties obtained in the Far East at the beginning of the XNUMXth century. by crossing the Ussuri pear with European varieties.
They are winter-hardy, fruitful, but they all ripen at the same time in early September and are stored no longer than a week, while the taste of the fruits is mediocre. They can only be used for processing. But now modern varieties of pears have already been created for the Urals and Siberia, which are significantly superior in fruit quality to the old varieties. These are, for example, varieties of selection of the Research Institute of Horticulture of Siberia named after I. MA Lisavenko - Perun with large (average weight 135 g) fruits, Svarog (fruits 100-150 g), Lel, Karataevskaya. Pears are delicious, incomparably better than onions.
Many gardeners in these regions have tested and continue to test different varieties of pears in their gardens. For example, Alexander Voikov from Khakassia is trying to grow varieties that are usually planted in the gardens of the middle lane - Severyanka, Svetlyanka, Memory of Yakovlev, Lyubimitsa Yakovlev, Autumn Dream. Severyanka, according to the gardener, winters well in Khakassia, without damage, gives sweet, very tasty fruits. This is a pear of summer ripening, the fruits are stored for no longer than 2 weeks. Severyanka is an old variety, but deserves attention. And Svetlyanka is a modern variety, distinguished by fruits with oily, tasty, juicy pulp, which ripen in September and can be stored for up to 3 months. The gardener notes that in severe frosts, damage to the branches is possible, but the crown is restored and even gives a small harvest in the same year. The rest of the listed varieties freeze slightly, so they can be grown only on skeleton-formers that are resistant to low temperatures. In this case, pears delight with wonderful fruits for many years.
Alexander Mikhailovich also grows varieties of the Chelyabinsk selection. Of these, Krasulya, Myth, Zarechnaya and the new Permyachka variety showed themselves well. These are winter-hardy trees, which in season delight with wonderful juicy sweet fruits.
The experience of Tatyana Vasilyeva from Irkutsk is also interesting. Of course, lukashki are also planted in her garden, among them the best variety is Tyoma, with large (up to 180 g) fruits, fruitful, resistant to all the vicissitudes of the Siberian winter. The fruits ripen in early September and can be eaten fresh or used for processing.
The varieties of Krasnoyarsk selection have proven themselves excellent - Veselinka, Small with small (30-40 g) fruits, but fragrant and tasty, it is a pleasure to eat them fresh straight from the tree.
And what about Siberia without real Siberian varieties? These are the well-known Lel, Svarog, Perun with excellent characteristics, bred in the Scientific Research Institute of Horticulture of Siberia named after V.I. M. A. Lisavenko. Fruits of the Lel variety ripen early, they are aromatic and sweet. The fruits of the other two varieties are no worse. At Tatyana Ignatievna, these varieties are doing well, yielding crops, sometimes freezing, but recovering.
Apparently, due to the microclimate on the site. However, many gardeners in Siberia freeze these same varieties and do not give a crop. Therefore, when planting, it is worthwhile to carefully select a place protected from winds, sunny. And watch. However, in general, these varieties are zoned for the conditions of Siberia, and there are great chances that they will take root in the garden. If the microclimate in your garden is unfavorable, try stanza formation.
And also grow in a garden near Irkutsk Kuyumskaya and Sibiryachka varieties with medium-sized (50 g) fragrant fruits of a sweet and sour taste, and the trees winter beautifully.
In the Urals, pear varieties of the South Ural Research Institute of Horticulture and Potato Growing (Yekaterinburg) show themselves well. Gardener Nikolai Koshka from Pervouralsk, Sverdlovsk Region, grows varieties of this institute in his garden. In the Talitsa variety, the fruits are juicy, sweet and sour, ripen in mid-August, and are stored for no longer than a week. The tree is winter-hardy, has never been damaged by frost and gives a harvest every year. At the end of August, the Zarechnaya pear gives fruit. They are quite large (100 g), with delicate pulp, sweet with a barely perceptible sourness. Trees also do not freeze, yields are high every year. In early September, Chusovaya ripens. Its fruits are in the form of a diamond, sweet without acid, with a juicy buttery pulp. Unripe fruits are tasty too, without an astringent taste. By the end of September, the fruits of the Guidon variety can be harvested. Their shape is similar to a pear, they are large (up to 140 g), with a dense crispy juicy pulp of sweet and sour taste.
GROWING PEAR IN THE MIDDLE STRIP
Here, pears have sweeter fruits than in the harsh climate, but not the same as in the south. Although southern varieties can also be grown. For example, a gardener and our regular author Gennady Fedorovich Raspopov from the Novgorod region grafts varieties for the Chernozem zone into the crown of winter-hardy pears - Allegro, Orlovskaya beauty, August dew (early ripening), Nika, Velesa, Marshal Zhukov (autumn), Polesskaya, Belorusskaya late (late ripening).
Very sweet tasty fruits are produced by the Marble variety for the Central and Black Earth regions. True, in the $ northwest the tree sometimes froze under - g. But in good years it gave very large, beautiful and tasty fruits that are not affected by scab.
Also, large sweet fruits are produced by the Belarusian variety Prosto Maria and Bryansk Kokinskaya. The varieties are fast-growing, late autumn ripening, fruits are stored for a long time.
Lydia Vanina from the Moscow region for 10 years tested different varieties of pears, grafting them into the crown of trees. Vidnaya, Velesa, Avgustovskaya dew, Prosto Maria, Dukhmyanaya, Lagodnaya, Krasavitsa Chernenko, Bryansk beauty, Skorospelka from Michurinsk showed themselves well.
If we talk about the most winter-hardy, tasty and shelf-stable, then Veles, Skorospelka from Michurinsk, Prosto Maria, Bryansk beauty showed themselves as such.
Veles winters well in the Moscow region and gives rather large (up to 170 g) fruits of excellent taste, which are kept cool for up to 3 months.
Skorospelka from Michurinsk has small (90 g), but beautiful yellow and tasty fruits. They ripen early, in mid-July.
The fruits of the Bryanskaya krasavitsa variety are one of the most delicious and beautiful. They are large (200 g), with a dark red blush, with an oily juicy sweet pulp - a pure delight! They ripen in early September and can be stored in a cool place for up to a month. And another important quality - the tree is winter-hardy in the Moscow region.
Another autumn variety is Just Maria. Fruits are yellow, weighing about 150 g, with delicate sweet pulp of excellent taste.
VARIETIES OF PEARS NEW 2019-2020
In 2019, the State Variety Commission took under protection a new pear variety of the outstanding breeder L.A. Kotova (South Ural Research Institute of Horticulture and Potato Growing) Flute. Summer ripening period. Fruits weighing 100 g, pear-shaped, light yellow with a pink barrel. White pulp, medium density, fine-grained, juicy, sweet and sour taste, 4, 4 points. Recommended for testing in the Volgo-Vyatka (4) region of the Russian Federation.
Another Ural pear variety of another famous breeder E. A. Falkenberg is Udachnaya Falkenberg. Autumn ripening period. The fruits are large, weighing 180 g, elongated pear-shaped, with a bumpy surface. The main color is green, the integumentary color is crimson on most of the fruit.
The pulp is white, dense, tender, oily, juicy. Sweet and sour taste with spice, 4, 7 points. The second grade of E. A. Falkenberg, taken under protection in the State Register in 2019, is Favorite. Autumn, fruits are large, weighing 140 g, short pear-shaped. The main color is green, the integumentary color is yellow throughout the fruit. The pulp is white, medium density, tender, fine-grained. The taste is sweet, 4, 5 points.
In 2020, two varieties for the south were taken under protection with the issuance of patents: the French Sepuna and the Crimean Beauty of Taurida.
© Author: T. VERESOVA
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