Recently we talked about wonderful apple varieties bred by Belarusian scientists. Today we will talk about modern varieties of Belarusian plums, which are also grown in their gardens by Russian gardeners and give them high marks.
Plum is very common in Belarus and ranks second after the apple tree. The year of the beginning of plum breeding in Belarus can be considered 1925, when a Belarusian branch was opened at the All-Union Institute of Plant Industry. Young breeders A.I.Syubarov and E.P.Syubarova gradually created the now famous varieties not only of plums, but also cherries, sweet cherries, apple trees, and pears.
THE FIRST BELARUSIAN PLUM VARIETY was created with the participation of Academician V. V. Pashkevich - one of the founders of scientific fruit growing in Belarus. Under his leadership, a survey of Belarusian gardens was carried out, many local varieties were collected and studied. Once, from one of the expeditions, Vasily Vasilyevich brought a seedling of the Green Renklode variety and handed it over to E.P. Syubarova. The seedling was named Pashkevich plum, and such varieties as Belorusskaya, Minskaya, Early Loshitskaya, Krupnoplodnaya, Stakhanovka, and Aprikosovaya originated from it. These are varieties with large (40-50 g) yellow fruits, but the yield was highly dependent on cross-pollination, and flowering was late. Because of these shortcomings, the varieties are not zoned, except for Early Loshitskaya.
In the 50-60s. E.P.Syubarova was actively engaged in intervarietal hybridization, and in 1964 a young scientist, and now the chief researcher of the department of selection of fruit crops of the Republican Unitary Enterprise “Institute of Fruit Growing, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, V.A.Matveev.
With his participation, in particular, a very frost-resistant variety of Vitebskaya late plum was created, which is zoned not only in Belarus itself, but also in Russia. Later, Valery Avksentievich was engaged in breeding varieties of large-fruited cherry plum (it is also called a hybrid diploid plum and Russian plum, in Russia the varieties of selection of academician G.V. Eremin are famous Kuban comet, Traveler, Nayden, Gek, Shater, Gift to St. Petersburg).
By the way, the Nayden variety was created in collaboration with V.A.Matveev. And in Belarus, varieties of hybrid cherry plum selection by V.A.Matveeva Mara (included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of Russia), Asaloda, Pramen, Lama, Soneika, Lodva, Vet-raz, Vetraz-2, Vitba are well known. But the varieties of home plums are Vitebskaya late, Kroman (these two varieties are zoned in Russia), Narach, Delikatnaya, Venera, Charadzeyka, Hungarian Belarusian. Of the latest novelties, the Volat variety shows itself perfectly - it is very sweet, dessert, large-fruited, Russian gardeners are already testing it on their plots and praise it very much. On the forum "PX" you can find a comparison with the Stanley variety, but Volat is more winter-hardy.
And now we offer you to get to know the Belarusian varieties better. Their characteristics will help you choose which variety you could plant, taking into account the conditions of your region.
(Stanley x Dalikatnaya) is a winter-hardy fruitful variety of medium ripening with large (40 g) purple fruits with a waxy bloom. The bone is separated from the pulp. The pulp is orange, dense, sweet and sour (4, 3 points). The harvest ripens at the end of August. The variety is partially self-fertile. It is resistant to clasterosporium disease.
Venus (Narach x Wangenheim) is a medium-hardy fruitful variety with medium (30 g) fruits of a red-blue color with a thick waxy bloom and a separating stone. The pulp is yellow, gristly, sweet and sour. The harvest ripens at the end of August. The variety is relatively resistant to clasterosporium disease.
Vitebsk late (Markov plum seedling) is a highly winter-hardy fruit variety with medium (30 g) fruits, purple with a waxy bloom. The bone is easily separated from the pulp. The pulp is yellow, gristly, sweet and sour. The harvest ripens in the second decade of September. The variety is relatively resistant to clasterosporium disease.
Volat (Stanley x Perdrigon) is a high-yielding winter-hardy variety with very large (more than 45 g) dark blue fruits, yellow juicy pulp of excellent sweet and sour taste (4 points) and a separating bone. It ripens in the second decade of September. The variety is resistant to clasterosporium disease.
Delicate (Eurasia 21 x Hungarian azhanskaya) is an early winter-hardy fruitful variety. The fruits are very large (42-45 g), with a light yellow base color and a red integument. The stone is small, easily separated from the pulp. The pulp is yellow, juicy, sweet and sour, of excellent taste (4, 3 points). The harvest ripens in early August. The variety is highly resistant to clotterosporium disease.
Crooman (Perdrigon x Vengerka azhanskaya) is a winter-hardy, fruitful variety of medium ripening with large (35 g) fruits with a dark red main and blue integumentary color, with a thick waxy bloom. The stone is small, easily detached. The pulp is yellow, dense, juicy, sweet taste (4, 5 points). The harvest ripens in August. The variety is partially self-fertile, resistant to clasterosporium disease. Patented in Russia.
Narach (Hungarian ordinary x Renklod Altana) is a highly winter-resistant fruitful variety. The fruits are medium (30 g), the main color is light green, the integumentary color is brown-red, with a thick waxy bloom. The bone is small. The pulp is yellow, dense, juicy, excellent sweet and sour taste (4, 2 points). The harvest ripens in early September. Self-fertile, highly resistant to clotterosporia. fruitful, medium ripening, with large (40 g) dark red fruits with a waxy bloom and a semi-detached stone. Orange pulp, medium density, juicy, sweet and sour, excellent taste (4, 5 points). It ripens at the end of August. The variety is resistant to clasterosporium disease.
Plum is best planted in a sunny, warm, wind-protected area. Otherwise, the yield may decrease, as well as the quality of the fruit, and the tree itself may freeze slightly in severe winters. Provide watering during dry periods. With a lack of moisture, the plum can shed ovaries and leaves.
It is imperative to whitewash the bark of the trunk, skeletal branches, forks. Plum is one of the first crops to suffer from spring sunburn and frost damage.
To be sure that cross-pollination is taking place, you need to plant pollinating varieties nearby. After all, most varieties are self-fertile, or partially self-fertile. That is, the flower does not pollinate itself.
Plum is sensitive to moisture stagnation. In the case when the groundwater is close to the site, it is better to plant the plum on mounds 50-60 cm high.And in order to water with such a planting it was convenient, cut off the bottom of plastic bottles with a volume of 1-5 liters, unscrew the lids and stick the neck down Near
Charadzeyka (Hungarian Donetsk early x Victoria) - winter-hardy variety, tree. There should be several such bottles around each tree. You will pour water or fertilizer solution into them. Moisture gradually seeps into the ground and goes directly to the roots.
Do not use a lot of organic matter and nitrogen fertilizers. Such dressings delay the growing season, the shoots will not have time to ripen and freeze over in winter.
Plum also often suffers from root collar podoprevanie. One of the options for dealing with it is to remove excess snow from the mounds. But it is safer to use non-decaying rootstocks. For example, 140-1 (however, in gardens, it sometimes freezes under severe winters and may not be compatible with all varieties of plums), 61-2 and 67-5 (they are more frost-resistant, but do not root out, therefore they are used only as an insert: they are grafted on the same 140-1 and only a year later the desired plum variety is grafted onto it).
SPECIAL IT IS NECESSARY TO SAY ABOUT PROTECTION AGAINST PESTS AND DISEASES, from which plums suffer and even die quite often. Until the buds have blossomed, spray the plums with copper chloride, first of all, the drug kills the awakening spores of fungi, and in addition, it dries the eggs of aphids, in which the larval hatching process begins, and the walls of the eggs become thin. The copper preparation penetrates and kills the unborn larvae. The same effect occurs on the eggs of other pests.
The second treatment is during the budding period and at the very beginning of flowering from the terrible diseases of stone fruit moniliosis and clasterosporiosis. Any fungicide against these diseases will help here. For example, based on foundazole or difenoconazole a.
Another treatment for aphids is in mid-late May with an insecticide against aphids, for example, based on imi-dacloprid, malathion (malathion), cypermethrin, etc.
The fourth treatment of plums is carried out in early June for fungal diseases. You can use a Bordeaux mixture and try to process it thoroughly, including the leaves underneath.
The fourth treatment (at the beginning of June) is carried out from the plum moth, which can greatly spoil the quality of the fruit. At this time, moth butterflies lay eggs, and a drug based on phenoxycarb may be a good remedy that acts on the eggs, killing the caterpillars inside them. A little earlier, during the summer period of butterflies (at the beginning of flowering), it is useful to set ferrous traps, they attract butterflies, butterflies die in traps and do not have time to lay eggs. And a little later, if the caterpillars nevertheless hatched from the eggs (this can be seen by the first damage to the ovary - the caterpillar makes a hole in it, gum flows from the hole), urgently, before a massive destruction of the ovaries occurs, spray the trees with insecticide.
Carry out the last, fifth treatment with a Bordeaux mixture in the fall, after leaf fall.
EMMA PETROVNA SYUBAROVA (1897-1983) - 6thorussian scientist-breeder. Together with her husband A.E.Syubarov and others, she bred 124 varieties of fruit crops, including: 24 apple varieties - Antey, Belorusskaya Raspberry, Bananovoe, Belorusskiy Sinap, Minskoe others; 8 varieties of Belarusian pears, Oily loshitskaya. Belorussian late, Berloshitskaya and others; 9 varieties of plum - Early Loshitskaya, Narach Kroman; 9 varieties of cherry - Vianok, Novodvorskaya; 75 varieties of cherries - Golden Loshitskaya, Krasavitsa.
© Author: I. BORISOVA, fruit grower
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