FRUIT GARDEN WORKS IN SEPTEMBER - CARE OF TREES
September. Harvesting season, preparing plants for wintering and purchasing seedlings. It is necessary to spray trees from pests and diseases, to carry out sanitary pruning, if necessary, apply phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
WE COLLECT YOUR CROP
Gardeners with little experience do not always harvest apples on time. Often the fruits are overripe, a carrion appears. In this case, they are not stored for a long time. In addition, late harvesting depletes the tree, and it hibernates worse.
Apples have removable and consumer maturity. Removable maturity occurs when the fruit stops growing, but at this time not all apples are suitable for consumption. The characteristic signs of removable maturity are that the stalk is easily separated from the branch, the seeds turn brown, the fruit pulp is less dense, the main color of the fruit changes from green to green-yellow or yellow.
Consumer maturity occurs when the fruits acquire the color, aroma and taste characteristic of each variety.
In summer and early autumn varieties, the demountable and consumer maturity coincide. The fruits of winter varieties are removed when they reach removable maturity, then they ripen and only then acquire consumer maturity.
In the middle lane in the first half of September apples of varieties Melba, Cinnamon striped are harvested. Bessemyanka Michurinskaya, Autumn Joy, Folk, Dessert Petrova, Golden Autumn, Striped Anise, Anisaly, Streif-ling.
In the second half of September, they start picking apples of winter varieties, such as Antonovka ordinary, Welsey, Mayak, Slavyanka, Berkutovskoe, Ramenskoe. Star.
In late September - early October, late winter varieties are harvested - Lobo, Spartan, Bogatyr, Spartak, Gift to Grafsky, Vityaz, Kortland, Renet Kichunova, Martovskoe.
Remove the apples so as not to damage either the fruit itself or the fruit on which it is located and which will be harvested next year. If the fruit is wet with dew or rain, dry it under a canopy, but do not wipe it off so as not to destroy the natural wax deposit necessary for storage.
In order for the fruits to be stored for a long time, you need to collect only healthy ones, without scratches, signs of diseases and pests. Store apples in boxes or trays, in plastic bags with holes in a cool, dark place.
A few words about picking pears and plums. In early September, they finish eating the fruits of autumn varieties: Memory of Zhegalov. Belesa, Thumbelina, Just Maria, Bryansk beauty, Kokinskaya. In the last days of the month, and if the weather permits, then later, they begin to collect fruits of late autumn and winter varieties of pears - Belorusskaya late, Maria, Nika, Yuryevskaya, Bohema. Novella.
At the beginning of September, the collection of late varieties of plums is finished - Vengerka Moskovskaya, Stanley, President, Pamyat Timiryazev, Alexy.
When the fruits are harvested, do not forget to remove the supports, disinfect them and clean them before the next season.
WE CARRY OUT SANITARY CUTTING OF TREES IN THE GARDEN IN SEPTEMBER
If you see diseased, broken, or withered branches in the trees, remove them. This must be done so that the bark does not appear in winter, and the spores of pathogenic fungi do not overwinter. Cover the wounds with a special modern wound treatment or garden varnish. Leave the main pruning for the spring.
Sanitize the hollows and wounds, for example, with a solution of copper sulfate (300 g per 10 liters of water). But first, clean off any rot, if any. It is convenient to close up the hollows with polyurethane foam. Or you can use the method suggested by V. Kontsevykh. He prepares a mixture of 4-5 liters of sawdust or shavings (fraction up to 10 mm), 40 g of HOM powder and 1 liter of natural drying oil. After stirring, it leaves for 10-12 hours, then puts the mixture in a dry, clean hollow and tamp it. After 4-5 days, the mixture becomes cork-like. It is better to cover the filling with oil paint from above.
FEEDING THE GARDEN IN SEPTEMBER
In autumn, a period of intensive root growth begins. At this time, apple and pear trees need additional fertilizing with organic and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. They contribute to better overwintering of fruit trees. Nitrogen fertilizers, of course, are not applied, since they stimulate growth.
At the end of September, dig up the soil in the near-trunk circles of young seedlings of fruit trees. You can dig to a depth of 15 cm along the perimeter of the crown projection and immediately apply phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. Moreover, it is desirable to apply mineral fertilizers every year, organic - once every 3-4 years. Near the trunk, the soil can simply be loosened to a depth of 5-7 cm.
Dig up the trunks of adult trees, too, if they are not under turf, and feed them. The fertilizer rate for adult trees is 30-40 g of superphosphate, 20-30 g of potassium chloride and 3-4 kg of organic matter (compost, rotted manure) per 1 sq. m. For young trees, halve the application rate.
If the near-trunk circle is free, then it is easy to apply fertilizers, but how to feed a tree where the near-trunk circle is sown with a lawn or flowers grow there? In this case, along the perimeter of the crown projection, dig holes up to 40 cm deep and fill them with fertilizers, premixed with the ground,
PLANTING SEEDLINGS IN SEPTEMBER
When planting fruit crops in autumn, planting pits are prepared in the following sizes: for 1-2-year-old seedlings - with a diameter of 60-80 cm and a depth of 40-50 cm, for older trees, the sizes are accordingly increased. On loamy and clayey soils, add 1-1 buckets of humus or compost, 2-250 g of superphosphate, 300-100 g of potassium chloride or 150-400 g of wood ash to each pit. On sandy soils, apply the same fertilizer, but add a couple of buckets of clay or river silt. On peaty soils, the mineral fertilizer is the same, but the dose of organic matter should be doubled. On the rich garden land, fertilizers can not be applied, it is enough to fill the hole with only a fertile layer of soil.
Cover the upper third of the pit with soil without fertilizers or with a mixture of soil and peat (in equal proportions) so that the roots do not come into direct contact with fertilizers and do not get burned.
If the groundwater is close to the site, then you do not need to dig holes, and plant fruit on a mound.
Many gardeners grow seedlings or rootstocks on their own. In this case, the digging and transplanting is best done in the spring.
If the seedlings are purchased, then it is better to buy them in the fall (there is more choice), and put them in a joke for the winter, not forgetting about protection from rodents (spruce branches, poisonous baits), and plant them in a permanent place in the spring. But now, in mid-September, is the time to prepare the ground for the spring planting. Distribute mineral and organic fertilizers evenly over the entire area of the site where you will plant seedlings, and also lime on acidic soil. Dig up, embedding fertilizers.
On loamy and heavy clay soils, add 40-60 g of superphosphate, 15-20 g of potassium chloride, 4-6 kg of organic matter, 300-700 g of lime (depending on acidity).
Mark planting sites with pegs. Standard layouts of apple and pear trees for backyard plots are 5 × 4 m, 5 × 3 m. 4 × 4 m.Then dig planting holes with a diameter of 50-80 cm and a depth of 50-60 cm.Fill them with fertile soil taken from the top layer and mixed with organic and mineral fertilizers. For sod-podzolic soils, one planting pit requires 20-30 kg of rotted manure or compost, 200-300 g of superphosphate, 100-150 g of potassium chloride or 800 g of wood ash.
On sandy and sandy loam soils, put loamy soil mixed with humus at the bottom of the planting pit in a layer of at least 10 cm.
It happens that a tree needs to be transplanted to another place. If it is young, not older than 4 - 5 years, then there will be no problems. Just try to preserve the root system as much as possible during digging and do not deepen the root collar when planting. The tree takes root faster if it is transplanted together with a dug out lump of earth on the roots.
It is more difficult to replant an adult tree, since the older it is, the larger its root system and the larger the earthen lump should be. Trees older than 10 years of age should not be replanted. This is difficult not only because of the large size of the aboveground part, but also because the roots will be severely damaged. And if you cut off the main part of the suction roots (lobe), then the tree will either hurt for a long time, or it will die altogether. It is easier to plant this variety on another rootstock (an adult tree or a young seedling).
FIGHTING THE DISEASES OF THE GARDEN
In the fall, it's time to process the garden. Against scab on apple and pear, as well as against coccomycosis on cherries and plums, immediately after harvesting, sprinkle the crowns with a 4-5% urea solution (400-500 g per 10 liters of water).
If you cannot do this before the leaves fall, you can spray it after the leaves fall, but to treat the fallen leaves, take a more concentrated 7% urea solution. 10 liters of solution is enough for 30 sq. m processing.
And here is a recipe for an effective remedy for fungal diseases from our subscriber: mix 700 g of urea, 500 g of ferrous sulfate, 1 tbsp. a spoonful of citric acid, 3 tbsp. tablespoons of green soap (for sticking) and diluted with water to 10 liters.
GARDEN CRYSTAL: 7 WORKS IN SEPTEMBER
These simple tricks of experienced gardeners will help you end the season with dignity. Don't neglect them!
- Tear off the roots
In order not to crack the heads of late-ripening white cabbage, in the first half of September I tear the roots, chopping them off with a shovel or pulling on the stump. Moisture from the soil will cease to flow into the head of cabbage, and the cabbage will remain on the root for another 2-3 weeks, and it will also easily tolerate night frosts.
From Brussels sprouts, I cut off the lower yellowing leaves so that it is better ventilated. To increase the yield, at the very beginning of September (20-30 days before harvest) I pinch the tops.
Two weeks before harvesting, I cover the heads of cauliflower with broken leaves of the same plant. Thanks to this, the heads do not crumble, they remain white and dense.
- Add tomatoes
If September pleases with warmth, in the open field I do not remove small tomatoes from the upper brushes, I let them pour on the branches. True, on cold days and at night I cover it with a film. I put the tomatoes collected in green in 2-3 layers in small boxes and put them to ripen in a warm, dry place, and if possible, lay them out on the floor of the room in one layer.
- Watch the weather
I take off the last fruits of sweet pepper as soon as the air temperature in the greenhouse during the day drops to +15 degrees. The fact is that pepper loves warmth and stops growing at a lower temperature. If you continue to keep the plants in the greenhouse, the pepper will ache and the infection may remain in the soil until next year.
- Prepare fertilizers
There is a lot of tops left after harvest. Usually it is dried and burned. But if it rains, it's hard to do. Therefore, for many years now I have been using the tops with benefit - I am preparing fertilizer. I put the plant residues in a heap, send overgrown fruits and other substandard there. I water everything with a 1% solution of copper sulfate, sprinkle with 10-15 cm of earth. After a couple of days, I spill a bunch of any microbiological preparation diluted according to the instructions (for example, Sanex). I cover it with a black foil with holes. By the spring, everything is overheated, and I get a good natural fertilizer.
- Send pumpkin seeds to the bins
A week before harvesting, I stop watering zucchini, zucchini, squash and pumpkins. Then I carefully cut them with a knife or pruning shears together with a 5-6 cm long stalk. I harvest the pumpkins last - at the end of September. I lay out zucchini and pumpkins for a week on the veranda, windowsill or in any bright room so that they are soaked in the sun, then I transfer them to a dry place. I store it under the bed, spreading it out on straw.
- Stock up on aromatic herbs
In September, I harvest sage, lemon balm, oregano, hyssop, tarragon, catnip, anise lofant.
I cut herbs in dry weather. I tie in bunches and dry in a bath or a pantry in a suspended form. I store it shredded in a kitchen cabinet in tightly sealed glass jars.
- Harvest root vegetables
Beets, whose heads half peep out of the ground, are harvested first of all immediately after light frosts. I select only completely healthy and whole root crops for storage.
I regularly loosen the soil on the carrot bed, because if a soil crust forms, the growing root crops will not have enough oxygen, and they will stop filling up or get sick.
BASIC WORKS IN THE GARDEN IN SEPTEMBER - VIDEO ABOUT FRUIT CARE
© Author: I. AFANASIEVA, agronomist
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