Although it is recommended to plant cherries in a permanent place in the spring, you can buy seedlings now. Before that, carefully study the varieties that can perform well on your site.
Just avoid unverified sources, which are full.
Now anyone writes there and about anything.
Go to the sites of the research institute, to the forums of gardeners and check the information there.
Pay attention not only to where the variety is zoned, but also for the ripening period, winter hardiness, tree height (this is important to consider when planting seedlings with an eye to the future). Self-fertility is also an important point. Based on this, we will draw conclusions whether it is necessary to buy a second tree for pollination or there is no special need for it. But let's say right away that the more trees of different varieties are planted, the higher the yield, even in cases where the varieties are self-fertile.
The ideal place for cherries is a light slope, sheltered from the wind, with well-drained soil. Never plant cherries in swampy soils, peat bogs, or heavy clay soils. Here you will have to fill mounds and plant trees on them.
For cherries, medium loamy soils are suitable, rich in nutrients, humus, and, of course, non-acidic.
Now let's talk about the problems that you may face when growing cherries.
CHERRY RESISTANCE TO DISEASES
This is a very important characteristic of the variety. Coccomycosis and moniliosis have destroyed many cherry orchards. Therefore, try to find a variety that is at least partially resistant to these diseases. You can also see if the cherry grows near your neighbors. This is also an indicator of how difficult or easy it will be for you with this culture.
The variety Dessertnaya Morozova has an average resistance to coccomycosis. Although the variety is zoned for the Central Black Earth Region, it is also successfully grown in the middle lane. Fruits of a dessert taste, sweet with a slight sourness. You need a pollinator to harvest. For example, Vladimirskaya, Morozovka-
By the way, Morozovka is also resistant to coccomycosis, fruits of sweet dessert taste. It was bred in Michurinsk, and in the middle lane the kidneys can freeze slightly. The fruits ripen late, in July.
The real discovery is the Tamaris variety (All-Russian Research Institute of Horticulture named after IV Michurin, Michurinsk). Practically not affected by coccomycosis, sometimes it suffers from moniliosis. Fruits are sweet and sour, large, ripen in July-August. Highly self-fertile and winter-hardy variety. Even if it freezes in a harsh winter, it will quickly recover.
Variety Radonezh (All-Russian Research Institute of Lupina, Bryansk) was included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements in 2002 in the Central Region. The tree is winter-hardy, resistant to fungal diseases, flower buds are frost-resistant. The fruits are tasty, tender and juicy, although not large.
If you find drying out of the leaves on the cherry as a result of damage by moniliozom, then immediately cut off the affected branch, capturing 15-20 cm of healthy wood. Can also be cut into a ring. Burn the affected branches immediately to prevent the spread of infection.
The defeat begins during the flowering period. The infection enters the plant through the stigma of the pistil. Spots appear on the petals, gradually all the flowers dry out. The disease passes from flowers to young fruiting branches, and then to larger ones. They all dry up and look like they were scorched by fire. That is why this type of lesion is called monilial burn.
For the prevention of moniliosis and coccomycosis, prophylactic treatment is carried out at the stage of the white bud with preparations based on copper or other active substances (thiophanate-methyl, difenoconazole, cyprodinil). After 10 days, the treatment is repeated.
It used to be that there should be at least two cherry trees on the plot. Often planted common Vladimirskaya and Shubinka. Now it is
the condition is not 100% mandatory if you plant self-fertile varieties, such as Molodezhnaya, Pamyat Yenikeev, Pamyat Ev-stratov. These varieties give high yields even without pollinators and have many other advantages.
All of them are displayed in VSTISP (Moscow) and show themselves excellently in the middle lane.
Variety Molodezhnaya - medium ripening (July 20-25), large, burgundy fruits, high yield (10-12 kg / tree) and annual. Winter hardiness is high (at the level of Vladimir). But there is also a small drawback - it can be affected by coccomycosis and moniliosis.
Variety Pamyati Yenikeeva - mid-early ripening period. Fruits are large, sweet and sour, dessert, ripen together. Productivity 8-10 kg / v. Average resistance to coccomycosis.
Variety Rastorguevskaya - self-fertile and early-fertile (comes into fruiting in the 3rd year), early middle ripening period. Fruits of medium weight, sweet and sour. Coccomycosis resistance is average.
The Rusinka variety, also self-fertile, can boast of regular fruiting. Fruits are medium-sized, maroon, late ripening. The tree is very hardy, like the flower buds. Coccomycosis resistance is average.
Sania variety - early maturing (mid-July), self-fertile, frost-resistant. Fruits are medium (3-4 g), sweet and sour. Coccomycosis resistance is average.
NO CHERRY FRUIT
This problem can be divided into two. The cherry blossomed, there was no frost, and nevertheless there are no ovaries. Or the ovaries appeared, but they were still crumbling green.
The first case is just a self-infertile variety and the absence of a pollinator. The solution to the problem is to plant a pollinator nearby, plant in the crown, or plant self-fertile varieties.
Until now, gardeners are very fond of the Vladimir cherry variety and plant it. Or he was planted by his parents. But this variety is self-fertile. Therefore, if you want to grow Vladimirskaya, plant next to Assol, Volochaevka, Molodezhnaya for cross-pollination. And by the way, all three of these varieties are self-fertile.
The second problem is more complicated, you have to figure it out. Green ovaries can naturally fall off when the tree itself regulates the load of the crop. In this case, nothing needs to be done. But it is possible that the fruits are damaged by pests or diseases, then measures and treatments will be needed. Or the tree lacks moisture, nutrition. Timely watering and feeding will solve the problem of ovary dropping.
INCORRECT FORMATION OF CHERRY
You need to start shaping the cherry as soon as the seedling is planted. Cherries very often branch off in the lower part, bush, and if you do not take measures in time, you will not be able to form a stem (and it should be 50-60 cm high). Therefore, already at a 1-2-year-old, remove excess shoots by forming a stem and marking skeletal branches (3 branches in the lower tier, 2-3 branches in the middle tier and 1 branch in the upper tier). Above them is the central conductor. Skeletal branches should be shortened if they are too long by 20 cm.
If in the future there are shoots growing inside the crown, rubbing against other shoots and simply thickening, they must be removed.
We recommend not to let the tree grow above 2 m. After all, it is more convenient to harvest from a low tree and it is more convenient to harvest, and you can hide it from birds with a net if something happens, and carry out processing. Therefore, prune vertically upward branches on the side branches annually.
Some experts recommend shaping the cherry tree into a bowl shape. In this case, the central conductor is removed, and the skeletal branches are directed in different directions at an angle. For the Central region, this is a good type of formation. The tree does not grow tall, it is easy to care for and harvest. Due to the fact that the center of the crown is empty, air and sun rays freely pass through the crown, and thus we avoid damage to cherries by diseases and pests. We begin shaping in the 1st-2nd year - pinch the upper part. Then we leave the shoots growing to the sides and remove those growing vertically. There is no need to specially bend the branches, under the weight of the harvest, over time, they themselves will take a more horizontal position.
CHERRY FRUIT GRINDING
It happens that cherries give small fruits. The reasons for this may be different. Perhaps self-normalization did not occur when the tree throws off excess ovaries that it cannot "feed".
Another reason is drought. Fruits for pouring do not have enough moisture, and they begin to turn red when still small. Be sure to water your cherries. You can water every day, it won't get any worse. Or morning and evening. About 200 liters of water must be poured under each tree so that it reaches the roots. At the same time, feed with mineral fertilizers or mullein (for 1 kg of fresh manure - 10 liters of water, pour under the root and then spill the soil additionally). Do not worry if the already reddened small fruits fall off, but the still green ones quickly increase in size and begin to ripen.
Fruits can shrink on a rather old tree. On average, cherries bear fruit well for 15 years, although the period depends on the quality of care (the better, the longer). The lifespan of the tree can be extended by rejuvenating pruning. Cut large old branches into younger and healthier ones. The top of the tree will have to be removed. After such pruning, the size of the fruit doubles.
WHY CHERRY DOESN'T BEAR FRUIT - VIDEO
© AUTHOR: V. SOKOLNIK, AGRONOM
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