CHERRY - GROWING, PLANTING AND CARE, FORMING KGB
In Belarus, both simple gardeners and scientists love cherries. Many varieties have been bred, which are tested in their gardens by the Russians, too, and I must say, they are very satisfied. After all, the Belarusian sweet cherry is large, tasty, and stable.
When I plant a plant in my garden, I first try to find out how it grew in nature, in which regions it succeeds especially well and what conditions it requires. If we talk about cherries, this is a southerner. For example, it grows chic in Ukraine, in Zaporozhye. There is a real cherry paradise. I had to visit and try the cherries there. And what about me and other gardeners in less than perfect conditions?
Having visited Zaporozhye, I made such an “ideal” portrait of the location of the sweet cherry: a sunny place with fertile soils, not clayey, without strong winds. But he returned to Belarus and thought about adapting to local conditions.
Finding the sunniest place on the site and planting cherries there - there were no problems here. Nothing can be done about our clay soils. Why are they not recommended for cherries? This culture is very fond of "eating". Therefore, fertile soils are needed. And clay, heavy - they are cold, and interfere with the free growth of the root system, prevent it from developing new, most nutritious soil particles. I found a solution in that I prepared wide and deep planting pits for planting, covered them with humus, and then gave top dressing. But the older the tree, the deeper and wider the roots go into the soil. Of course, they no longer get food from the landing pit. However, I didn't notice any problems. Cherry continues to grow and actively bear fruit.
And here I want to return to the topic of lighting. Why is it so necessary for cherries? All for the same reason. After all, the plant receives nutrients not so much from the soil in the form of minerals (fertilizers, top dressing). The better the lighting, the more active photosynthesis. Green leaves in the light not only absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen, but in the process of photosynthesis (organic substances (sugars) are formed from inorganic ones. And they are also vital for the plant to grow, develop and form a crop.
Well, about the dislike of cherries for strong winds. Perhaps this is so. But we have a rather strong wind, I did not notice any negative consequences for my sweet cherry.
But the proximity of groundwater is a real disaster. They should not be higher than 1-5 m to the soil surface. On my site, this is all right, but I know a lot of sad stories about cherries in wet areas. The roots rot, do not breathe, the yield drops, the plants get sick.
Cherry does not like stagnant water, but at the same time it is moisture-loving. Infrequently, but we have long droughts. Then I have to water the cherries.
I want to note the special love of cherries for boron. The fact is that sweet cherries contain a record amount of boron - 178%. Accordingly, the plant takes out this microelement along with the harvest. Why is it needed? To form cell walls, to transport sugars across membranes, to increase the amount of chlorophyll (and better photosynthesis). In addition, due to the presence of boron, the plant absorbs nitrogen and calcium better. Boron stimulates the beginning of flowering, promotes the germination of pollen, and accordingly, thanks to boron, the number of ovaries on the tree can increase and the yield can increase. So top dressing of a cherry tree with boron is necessary to obtain a full-fledged and high-quality crop.
I spray with boron in the spring, before flowering. However, you can also do this during the flowering period, if you are late.
DISEASES AND PESTS OF CHERRY
A few words about diseases and pests. The "disease of the century" for cherries is moniliosis. Infection occurs through the flower with spores of a pathogenic fungus. The mushroom picker penetrates inside, leaves soon wilt, shoots are affected. It is better to prevent this terrible disease, for which purpose spraying is carried out in early spring with special modern fungicides. If the disease has already manifested itself, cut off the affected areas, and with a margin - to healthy wood.
We also recommend reading: Spraying scheme for cherries from moniliosis
Klyasterosporiosis is another unpleasant disease of cherries. Small spots first appear on the leaves, and then holes form in their place. It is not for nothing that the second name of clasterosporiasis is perforated spotting. This fungal disease is a problem for many stone fruits, not just cherries. In addition to the leaves, wounds also appear on the shoots. And it would seem that the disease is not very terrible, but the bad thing is that due to damage to the shoots in the middle of summer, the cherry tree begins to produce new shoots. They thicken the crown, disrupt the circulation of nutrition, do not have time to become woody, freeze in winter, and various diseases and pests penetrate through new wounds.
Aphids are the most unpleasant pest of cherries. For small trees, defeat by this pest even threatens with death. On large trees - crop loss, poor health of the plant. Timely spraying with special preparations (there are many of them) or folk remedies helps against aphids.
The cherry fly is another pest of cherries. The flies lay their eggs in the fruit, where white larvae later appear. Few people will eat such wormy cherries. The flight of the fly lasts from mid-May to mid-July. During this period, she lays eggs. The larvae grow, feeding on the pulp, then they get out and hide in the soil at a depth of only 2-5 cm, pupate and hibernate. So here is one of the methods of fighting the cherry fly - keeping the soil under the cherry and cherry trees in a clean state, without turfing and weeds. It is good to loosen periodically. Then the larvae will not be able to hide. I do so.
I also set up traps for flies that have flown from neighbors. As soon as it gets warmer, I hang plastic bottles in the crown. I cut off the top of them, turn them over and put them in the bottle. It turns out a funnel, which is easy to get into, but almost impossible to get out. I pour fermented kvass into the bottle, jam with water, in a word, everything that smells pleasant for the fly and makes it climb into the bottle through the funnel.
You can also spray trees. I heard about the effective spraying of decoctions of tobacco, needles, wormwood, onion peel, garlic. I only use garlic. Such spraying repels flies and prevents them from laying eggs in fruits.
I make an infusion from garlic. I put 3 kg of crushed cloves in a 0-liter jar, fill it with water and leave it in a warm place for 5 days. I'm filtering. For 5 liters of water I add 10 ml of infusion, grated laundry soap (this is an adhesive) and spray it.
The buffalo leafhopper is a very voracious pest, and it is dangerous not only for grapes, but also for cherries. Cicadas lay their eggs in the tissues of young shoots, and for this they saw through cracks in the bark. For cherries, this is terrible because a strong gum flow begins. In addition to the fact that the plant loses valuable nutrient juices, pathogenic fungi can penetrate through the damage. In June, I spray the cherries from the leafhopper with a preparation based on cypermethrin and repeat the treatment after 10 days. I don’t have turfing, but if grass grows under your cherries, then it also needs to be sprayed.
I don’t do anything with gum disease, it stops on its own. Although you can try to clean the wounds to life and treat with copper sulfate or fungicide.
I’ll tell you about one more terrible pest, which, fortunately, I haven’t had yet. But this information needs to be known. American white butterfly. It rages in the southern regions. This is a very productive pest, one butterfly lays about 1 thousand eggs. A huge number of larvae hatch, and these caterpillars gnaw the tree clean (eat the leaves, leaving only the veins) in just 5-2 days. Now Belarusian scientists have developed new drugs based on bacteria that will infect and kill butterflies, but tests are still ahead. In the meantime, it is practically useless to fight the American white butterfly, it remains only to cut down and burn the dead trees.
CHERRY FORMING KGB (KGB)
Now about the formation. If you form a sweet cherry with an ordinary tree, in tiers, it grows huge, up to 6 m. It is not only difficult to harvest, process, and cut it from it. You can’t throw a net on it during the ripening period. But the mesh is so far the only effective crop protection from birds that can eat the cherry crop completely.
I form my cherries in the form of a bush according to Kim Green (KGB).
In 1993, Dr. Lynn Long (USA) and Australian horticulturist Kim Green, visiting Spain to study the method of forming sweet cherries according to the Spanish bush type, noted a significant deviation from the technology after 2 years of forming the Spanish bush. So, quite by accident, a new way of forming sweet cherries called KGB (KGB - Kim Green bush, or Kim Green's bush) arose, which made it possible to collect fruits directly from the ground, without the use of ladders, significantly reducing the time to collect fruits.
The KGB is almost like a Spanish bush. Only Spanish can be used on sweet cherries on a medium-sized rootstock, and the KGB not only on a medium-sized one, but also on a tall one. Noobformations reduce the height of the tree.
CUTTING SCHEME KGB (KGB)
I plant a one-year-old cherry and cut it at a height of 50-60 cm. In the spring, 3-4 young shoots form in the upper part. When they grow to 50-60 cm (around May), I pinch them. A year later, I measure up from the place of the previous pruning 15-20 cm and cut off all new branches (see figure). Like in a line. That is, it turns out that the branches that grow straight up, I cut shorter than those that grow to the sides. But the branches above the rest should not be. The shoots grow further, and each newly cut branch awakens several upper buds. After a year, I again measure 15-20 cm from the previous pruning and cut off the young shoots. The total number is increasing. And here we notice the difference between the formations. At the Spanish bush we leave 15-18 equivalent strong shoots. The KGB has 20-25 strong shooters, and more is possible. Choosing which shoots to keep and which to remove, I leave the strongest, healthiest, best. Weak ones are removed. I also remove shading each other and intersecting.
When the required number of shoots is left, I allow the tree to grow to a height of 2-2 m. I cut everything that is higher. If necessary, I shorten the branches on the sides. Inside the crown I remove the extra shoots.
It turns out a low tree, similar to a bush.
The formation of the KGB speeds up the entry into fruition, I have already mentioned the other advantages above.
The distance when planting cherries is not less than 3 m.
See also: How to form cherries - EASY AND COMPACT
I grow several varieties of cherries, and I am satisfied with all of them.
Syubarovskaya. This is a very productive variety. Ripening is extended, we collect the fruits gradually. The longer the fruits hang on the tree, the darker they are. They are very large, sweet, dense, crispy. The bone separates well. The variety is reliable, always happy with the harvest. Resistant to coccomycosis.
Gronkavaya. The fruits are dark, heart-shaped, slightly softer than those of Syubarovskaya, but also quite dense. The yield is high.
Zhurba. This is a white-fruited variety, I think that this should be in the garden for a change. The bone is easily separated. There is one small drawback: if the fruit is damaged by a bird, then it quickly darkens, so you are unlikely to eat it. Medium-sized fruits (6-7 g), yellow, tender, very juicy and tasty. The variety is resistant to coccomycosis.
Gascinets. Another "sunny" variety - with yellow fruits with a pink blush and yellow flesh, i th size - medium, about 6 g. The pulp is dense, crispy, sweet, juicy. The bone separates well. Resistant to coccomycosis.
Folk. Late variety, productive. The fruits are black, there are a lot of them, the tree is literally strewn with harvest. The fruits are on long stalks and are, as it were, evenly distributed on the shoots, in contrast to Syubarovskoye, where the fruits are collected in clusters. If one of the fruits is damaged by rot, it quickly passes to the fruits located nearby. This does not happen in the Narodnaya variety, because the fruits almost do not touch. And this is one of the advantages of this variety.
Valery Chkalov is the latest variety on my site. The fruits are very dense, crispy, in the rainy period they can crack and quickly rot. But it is one of the most large-fruited varieties. Excellent taste and extended ripening period are also important positive qualities of this variety.
Cherry is a large tree, you can’t plant a lot of them. But if there is space, I would recommend planting an early and late variety and one with light fruit for variety.
I plant varieties on wild cherries, cherries and stock VSL-2. By the way, I advise you to test VSL-2 for cherries in the northern regions of Russia, in the middle lane, where groundwater is close (this stock is patient with them). My trees bear fruit every year, endure winter temperature drops to minus 35 °.
Reference by topic: The best foreign varieties of sweet cherry are names and description
BELARUSIAN VARIETIES OF CHERRY
What is remarkable about Belarusian varieties of cherries? Why plant them here in Russia? First of all - high resistance to diseases and excellent taste. And other characteristics did not let us down. Just look!
Vityaz (Red dense x Valery Chkalov). Winter-hardy, productive variety. Self-infertile. The best pollinators are Northern, Amber, Iput, Gascinets. Resistant to coccomycosis.
The fruits are medium-sized (average weight 4 g), dark red. The bone separates well. The pulp is dense (bigarro), juicy, sweet good taste (tasting score 2 points). The term of consumption is mid-July.
It has been on state variety testing in Belarus since 2004.
Gascinets (Red dense x Aelita). Medium hardy, high yielding. Partially self fertile. The best pollinators are Goonkavaya, Zhurba, Narodnaya. Resistant to coccomycosis.
The fruits are large (average weight 6 g), the main color is yellow, the integument is dark red. The stone is small, well separated from the pulp. The pulp is yellow, bigarro, juicy, sweet (3 points). The term of consumption is mid-July.
In the State Register of Varieties of the Republic of Belarus since 2005.
Gronkavaya (Northern x cherry pollen mix). Early, winter-hardy, fruitful. Self-infertile. The best pollinators are Folk, Beauty, Zhurba. Resistant to coccomycosis.
Fruits of medium size (average weight 5 g), dark red. The bone is small, well separated. The pulp is dark red, medium density, juicy, pleasant sweet taste (2 points). The term of consumption is the third decade of June.
Included in the State Register of Varieties of the Republic of Belarus in 1999. Patented in Russia and included in our State Register of Breeding Achievements in 2002.
Medunitsa (Narodnaya x Yaroslavna). Winter-hardy, fruitful. Self-infertile. The best pollinators are Amber, Gascinets, Severnaya, Iput, Vityaz, Ovstu-zhenka. Resistant to coccomycosis.
Fruits of medium size (average weight 5 g), rounded shape (most cherries are heart-shaped). The main color is yellow, the integument is orange. The stone is medium in size, well separated from the pulp. The pulp is yellow, dense (bigarro), juicy, sweet taste (7 points). The juice is light red. The term of consumption is mid-July.
Transferred to the state variety testing in Belarus in 2004.
Minsker (Red dense x Coal). Winter-hardy, high-yielding. Self-infertile. The best pollinators are Iput, Gascinets, Syubarovskaya. Resistant to coccomycosis, not affected by monilial burn.
The fruits are large (average weight 6 g), dark red. Separation from the stalk is dry. The stone is medium in size, well separated from the pulp. The pulp is dark red, dense texture (bigarro), sweet taste (tasting score 5 points). The juice is red. The term of consumption is mid-July.
Transferred to the state variety testing network of Belarus in 2013.
Folk (Cherry Pashkevich x mixture of pollen of sweet cherries). Winter-hardy, fruitful. Partially self fertile. The best pollinators are Northern, Golden Loshit-kai. Moderately resistant to coccomycosis.
Fruits of medium size (average weight 5 g), dark red. The stone is medium in size, well separated from the pulp. The pulp is dark red, medium density, juicy, pleasant sweet taste (tasting score 2 points). The juice is dark red. The term of consumption is the beginning of July.
In the State Register of Varieties of Belarus since 1999.
Northern (seedling of an unknown variety of sweet cherry). Winter-hardy, fruitful. Self-infertile. The best pollinators are Folk, Syubarovskaya, Muscat, Beauty. Resistant to coccomycosis.
The fruits are small (average weight 4 g). The main color is light yellow, the integument is pink. The stone is medium in size, well separated from the pulp. The pulp is light pink, medium density, juicy, sour-sweet taste (tasting score 4 points). The juice is light pink. The term of consumption is mid-July.
It was included in the State Register of Varieties of the Republic of Belarus in 1998 for home cultivation.
Muscat (Northern x Pobeda). Winter-hardy, high-yielding. Self-infertile. The best pollinators are Northern. Resistant to coccomycosis.
Fruits of medium size (average weight 4 g), purple-black. The stone is medium in size, well separated from the pulp. The pulp is dark red, medium density, juicy, pleasant sweet taste (tasting score 6 points) with a nutmeg flavor. The juice is dark red. The term of consumption is the beginning of July.
Widely distributed in home gardens of Belarus.
Syubarovskaya (Northern x Pobeda). Medium hardy, productive. Self-infertile. The best pollinators are Goonkavaya, Narodnaya, Severnaya. Resistant to coccomycosis.
Fruits of medium size (average weight 5 g), dark red. The stone is medium in size, well separated from the pulp. The pulp is dark red, medium density, juicy, pleasant sweet taste (tasting score 3 points). The juice is dark red. The term of consumption is the beginning of July.
In the State Register of Varieties of the Republic of Belarus since 2005.
Pleasure (Red dense x Coal). Medium hardy, productive. Self-infertile. The best pollinators are Northern, Iput, Amber, Ovstuzhenka. Resistant to coccomycosis.
The fruits are large (average weight 6 g), heart-shaped. The main color is yellow, the integument is orange. Separation from the stalk is dry. The stone is medium in size, well separated from the pulp. The pulp is yellow, dense texture (bigarro), sweet taste (8 points). The juice is colorless. Consumption period - mid-July
Included in the State Register of Varieties of the Republic of Belarus in 1972. Patented in Russia and included in our State Register of Breeding Achievements in 1979.
Rival (Red dense x (Valery Chkalov + Ugolyok). Medium-hardy, productive. Self-infertile. The best pollinators are Iput, Gascinets, Gronkavaya, Syubarovskaya, Yantarnaya. Resistant to coccomycosis.
The fruits are large (average weight - 6 g). The main color is yellow, the integument is red. The stone is medium in size, well separated from the pulp.
The pulp is yellow, dense (bigarro), juicy, sweet taste (4 points). The juice is colorless. The term of consumption is the second half of July.
Transferred to the state variety testing of Belarus in 2008.
YELLOW-FRUIT: Gascinets, Lungwort, Pleasure, Northern, Rival. PARTIALLY SELF-FERTILIZED: Gascinets, Narodnaya.
NOT AFFECTED BY MONILIOSIS: Minsker.
WITH UNUSUAL TASTE: Muscat.
NEW PRODUCTS (IN TEST): Vityaz, Minsker, Medunitsa, Rival.
All varieties of cherries are usually divided into 2 groups - bigarro and gini. Bigarro is a variety with dense, elastic, crispy fruit pulp. They are good not only fresh, but also for processing. Gini - varieties with tender, juicy, sweet pulp. They are not stored for a long time and are not transportable. These are table varieties, mostly of early ripening.
BELARUSIAN VARIETIES OF CHERRY ON VIDEO
© Author: S. TARASOV Belarus
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