PLANT IN THE MIDDLE STRIP - VARIETIES, LANDING AND CARE
The hybrid cherry plum, or Russian plum, is one of the many types of plum, not so long ago known in Russia as a wild plant with small and sour fruits. Its cultural large-fruited forms were grown in a small volume only in the North Caucasus in Dagestan.
In the middle of the XX century. By hybridizing local large-fruited cherry plums with Chinese, American plums and cherry plums, a fundamentally new type of plum was created - hybrid cherry plum, or Russian plum.
Russian plum has remarkable qualities in order to grow it in the middle lane.
1. One of the main ones is precocity: the laying of generative buds can occur on annual seedlings, and already in the 2-3rd year after planting, it gives a significant harvest.
2. Russian plum is characterized by slow spring development, which ensures high resistance of generative buds to spring frosts.
3. Fruit ripening occurs very early - in the 2nd-3rd decade of July, and stretches (by variety) until the 2nd decade of September.
The culture is characterized by drought resistance and resistance of the leaf apparatus to diseases. Flowering plants of the Russian plum are excellent honey plants.
Russian plum fruits, like common cherry plum, contain organic sugars - up to 13%, organic acids, pectin, anthocyanins, vitamins B2, B, E, Pv PP, and in seed kernels - up to 42% oil, close in quality to almond .
The well-known breeder G.V. Eremin. At the Crimean experimental breeding station of VNIIR in the Krasnodar Territory, in the city of Krymsk, by crossing the Sino-American plum variety Skoroplodnaya with the best varieties of large-fruited cherry plum and other crosses, he created a series of remarkable varieties of Russian plum (hybrid cherry plum): Kuban Comet, Found, Traveler, Chuk, Gek, etc. Some of its varieties have successfully taken root in the more northern regions of the country: Central, North-West, North-East and others. In Russia and the CIS, his followers created highly winter-resistant interesting varieties on a complex hybrid basis, Russian plum forms, as well as varieties well adapted to the agro-climatic conditions of the western and central regions of the CIS.
For planting Russian plum seedlings, try to choose a site on a hill. Depressions, lowlands, river valleys are categorically not suitable for this. The groundwater level should not approach the soil surface by more than 1,5 m. The site should be well lit, cultivated: dug up, moderately fertilized with humus (1-1,5 buckets per 1 sq. M), protected from cold northern and east winds, but at the same time well ventilated.
For better pollination, fruiting, and a longer period of consumption of fresh fruits, it is better to plant a cherry plum orchard with as many varieties as possible, different in terms of ripening, fruit quality, and adaptability to abiotic and biotic stressors.
It is better to plant seedlings in the spring. If you bought them in the fall, then dig in. When planting, deepen the root neck a little, then there will be less growth on the rootstock. After planting, water the seedlings (1-2 buckets of water) and mulch with neutral peat, dry soddy (weed-free) soil.
According to the level of acidity, the soil in the near-stem circle should be neutral (pH 6,5-7,5). Acidic soils are deoxidized with lime, which not only neutralizes, but also improves the structure, physical properties of the soil and its biocenosis. Application rates - 400-800 g (depending on the degree of acidity) per 1 sq. m near the trunk circle.
If the soil is highly alkaline (pH above 9,5), apply sulfur (0,5 kg per tree).
The pruning of Russian plum trees is especially important. Crown shaping in the spring in the first 3 years after planting. Since the Russian plum is less winter-hardy than other fruit crops, it is better to form its crown in the form of a vase-shaped bush with a stem no higher than 30 cm.
Also, Russian plums, especially in the first years of life, grow long and powerful shoots (more than 70 cm). Cut them back to a quarter of their length in the summer, at the moment when growth has just ended (the shoots will form an apical bud). Such pruning stimulates the formation of secondary summer shoots from shoots, on which generative buds will be laid later than on the main primary shoots. In the spring of next year, a branched annual growth will have generative buds with different development on primary and secondary shoots, which, with possible spring frosts, will ensure their different preservation and will guarantee the formation of a normal crop.
Pruning a Russian plum, like a homemade plum, should be approached individually. If a tree of a certain variety has a dense crown, then in the spring it needs to be thinned out without leaving stumps when pruning. And if the crown is rare, but with a weak growth (less than 40 cm), then consistently, several branches per year, for 3 years, shorten the main branches by 2-3-year-old wood above a strong lateral branch directed outward from the center of the crown.
If, after a strong freezing of trees in a harsh winter, powerful shoots of a variety (not a rootstock, which is easy to distinguish by leaves) appear from the trunk, then in no case cut them out. Leave 1-3 most powerful ones and then, cutting off the dead part of the crown, form a new crown from these powerful branches over time. Also, after severe winters, the remaining branches should not be cut, as this can lead to the death of trees, and after such winters, sanitary pruning should be carried out, cutting out all the dead branches.
For good growth and fruiting of trees, especially pruned and frozen ones, be sure to fertilize them with organic and mineral fertilizers. Apply nitrogen fertilizers to moist soil in spring, potash and phosphorus fertilizers in autumn.
It happens that in years with favorable weather conditions in the winter-spring period, an excessively plentiful harvest is tied up near the Russian plum, as a result of which the fruits become smaller and their quality deteriorates. From an overabundance of crops, trees can also suffer greatly even from mild winter frosts. To avoid this, thin out the ovaries evenly and cut off the extra ones when they become the size of a hazelnut.
Also, for normal fruit set, it is necessary that the annual growth on the tree be powerful enough in length, not less than 50 cm. If it is shorter, in the spring, shorten pruning on 2-3-year-old wood.
A few words about protection from diseases and pests. The most harmful disease of the Russian plum is gray fruit rot. And one of the first measures to combat this disease is the collection and destruction of affected fruits. Often, gray mold occurs on fruits as a result of insect bites or cracking in wet weather, so choose varieties with minimal fruit cracking.
To combat diseases, you can also use the same folk and chemical remedies as for home plums.
If we talk about pests, then they damage the Russian plum much less than the domestic plum. But still, in some years, severe damage by the codling moth and sawfly occurs. Measures to combat them are the same as those of the house plum.
The fruits of the Russian plum have established themselves as a good therapeutic and dietary remedy for coughs and throat diseases. Pulverized pitted pulp of cherry plum, rolled and then dried in the form of thin plates, retains its beneficial properties.
Fruits are useful for hypertension, rheumatism, pneumonia, as they contribute to an increase in vascular permeability.
THE BEST VARIETIES OF HYBRID CHERRY
Traveler (Ruby). Bred at the Crimean Experimental Breeding Station VNIIR. Originator - G.V. Eremin.
The fruits ripen early (in the third decade of July), medium size (weighing 27 g), rounded, the seam is weakly expressed. Funnel of medium depth. The skin is of medium density, maroon with many yellow subcutaneous dots. The pulp is orange, soft, fine-fibrous, moderate juiciness. The taste is sour-sweet, harmonious, with a strong aroma. The stone is small, it makes up 3,9% of the weight of the fetus, it is poorly separated from the pulp. Fruits of medium length and thickness, universal purpose.
The variety is early-growing, productive (up to 30 kg per tree), resistant to fruit rot, perforated spotting and fruit cracking. The tree is medium-sized, bushy, low winter-hardy, but with good regenerative ability.
The variety is recommended for cultivation in the North Caucasus and Central Black Earth regions. It regularly bears fruit in the Moscow region, recovering quickly and well after freezing in harsh winters. Scythian gold. Bred at the Moscow Agricultural Academy. K.A. Timiryazev. Fruits of super-early ripening period (2-3rd decade of July), large (35 g), round-oval with a flattened base and a slightly narrowed top. The ventral suture is almost invisible. The funnel at the base of the rein is narrow and shallow. Peduncle of medium length and thickness. The skin is dense, yellow, slightly powdered with a wax coating. The pulp is yellow, dense, fibrous, splashing with juice. The taste is refreshing, sweet and sour. The yield is quite high, up to 25 kg per tree. The tree is bushy, sprawling and squat, relatively resistant to fruit rot, but not winter-hardy enough: the variety freezes strongly both in frosts below 30 °, and with a sharp change from thaw to frost (below minus 20 °). But strongly frozen trees in favorable agro-climatic conditions are able to recover quickly.
The variety is zoned in the Moscow region, but it is better to cultivate it in the central and southern regions.
Shatrovaya. Plum variety of Russian selection L.I. Taranenko (Donetsk Experimental Breeding Station).
Fruits with an average weight of 26 g (in favorable agrotechnical conditions, the average fruit weight can reach 35-40 g). The shape is rounded. The skin is pink-burgundy, dense, covered with a wax coating. The pulp is juicy, dark-burgundy, with a rich peculiar taste. The stone is small, semi-lagging behind the pulp. The fruits ripen in the 2nd decade of August. The trees are bushy, weakly branching, vigorously growing, 2,7-3 m high. Fruiting is concentrated on branches of the 1st-2nd order on bouquet twigs and short twigs. The variety is highly productive - up to 30 kg per tree. Winter hardiness is average.
Kuban comet. Bred at the Crimean Experimental Breeding Station VNIIR. Authors - G.V. Eremin, S.N. Zabrodin.
Fruits of early ripening (1st decade of August), ovoid, large (29-35 g), burgundy with a slight wax coating, good original taste. The stone is small, lagging behind the pulp. The variety is early-growing, partially self-fertile, pollinators are simultaneously flowering varieties of Chinese and Russian plums. One of the most regularly fruiting varieties. Productivity - from 25-30 kg per tree and more. Due to the slow pace of spring development, it avoids spring frosts.
The tree is bushy, low-growing (2-2,5 m), drought-resistant, moderately winter-hardy, recovers well after freezing. The variety is zoned in the Krasnodar Territory and has proven itself well in the central and southern regions of the Non-Black Earth Region. But one of the disadvantages of this variety, which is characteristic of many varieties of Russian plum, is that in years with warm weather and high humidity in May-June, the fruits are affected by fruit rot. But on the other hand, the trees are practically not damaged by aphids and perforated spotting.
Fibing hybrid. An elite form of selection by M.N. Matyunin (Chemal stronghold VNIIS named after M.A. Lisovenko).
The fruits ripen in the 1st-2nd decade of August, weighing 27-35 g, oval. The skin is yellow, medium density, with a slight wax coating.
The pulp is yellow, dense, juicy, with a pleasant banana flavor, with a spicy bitterness from the skin. The stone is small, semi-lagging behind the pulp. Fruits can be well preserved for a month in a conventional refrigerator. The tree is slightly branched, vase-shaped, undersized (up to 2 m), with moderate productivity - 10-15 kg per tree. Resistance to fruit rot is above average. Winter hardiness is relatively high, resistant to return frosts up to 35 ° at the end of winter.
And of course, it is necessary to mention the varieties of Belarusian selection. They show themselves very well in central Russia and are loved by many gardeners.
Reference by topic: Cherry plum for the northern regions - hybrids, species and varieties
Mara. Originators - V.A. Matveev, M.P. Malyukevich, Z.A. Kozlovskaya, M.G. Maksimenko (Institute of Fruit Growing of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus).
Fruits of late ripening (late August - early September), weighing about 20 g, rounded, with yellow skin. The pulp is yellow, very juicy, loose, sweet, with a small poorly lagging bone. The variety is early-growing, productive - more than 30 kg per tree. Fruits of universal purpose - can be consumed fresh as a dessert, or can be preserved.
Relatively disease resistant. There were no pests on the trees in the garden. Moro-zo- and heat-resistant, drought-resistant variety. The tree is bushy, tall (up to 4,5 m). With good recovery ability. Well proved in the central and southern regions of the Moscow region.
Sonya. Obtained by crossing Mary with a mixture of pollen from diploid plum varieties. The ripening period is medium late. The fruits are yellow, very large (40-50 g), ripen in August. The pulp is yellow, juicy, sweet and sour, aromatic. The stone is medium, non-separable.
The tree is winter-hardy, resistant to diseases, including klesterosporiosis.
Lama. A tree with a beautiful compact crown and elongated chocolate-burgundy leaves. The bark on young shoots is also burgundy. Foliage turns yellow in autumn. The color of the ki is pink, also very beautiful. And the fruits are purple, rather large (30-35 g), with tender red pulp. The bone is small, easily separated. The taste is sweet with sourness.
The variety is medium-late, the crop ripens at the end of August. Winter-hardy, drought-resistant. Resistant to diseases and pests.
Lodva. An early variety (ripening in late July early August) with large (35 g) yellow fruits and a small stone, well separated from the pulp. The pulp is yellow, tender, juicy, aromatic, sweet and sour. The variety is resistant to clasterosporia.
Reference by topic: Cherry plum pests and diseases - name and description
PLANT IN THE MIDDLE PROLOS - VIDEO
© Author: A. BELYAKOVA, gardener of the Moscow region
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