WHICH SALAD CAN BE GROWED ON A PLOT EXCEPT THE REGULAR - PHOTO, NAME AND DESCRIPTION
SALAD FOR LIGHTNESS AND SLIMMING
Lettuce is useful to everyone without exception, but only if it is grown in its own garden and has not been stored for a long time, but immediately on the table. In the spring it should be eaten with whole plates, getting a huge amount of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber with a minimum of calories.
WORLD VEGETABLE SALAD
In vegetable growing, lettuce is big business. It is grown by greenhouse complexes on hydroponic installations, farmers - in the fields, and without exception, all amateur vegetable growers - in personal beds and in containers. This is the most diverse of green crops in terms of the number of types, varieties and options for their use.
So, in the Mediterranean, the main cultivar of Romaine lettuce (varieties Irbid, Yucatan, Dendy, Roger) in terms of texture and taste is perhaps one of the best and most useful.
In Catalonia, southern France and northern Italy, half-headed batavia varieties are popular, especially the Maravilla de Verano variety with a slight anthocyanin coloration, very elegant and tasty. In our country, it is represented by varieties Assol and Andromeda.
Lollo Bionda and Lollo Rossa salads, so beloved by everyone, came from Italy. Although they are not so tasty, they are unpretentious, beautiful, good in various vegetable salads and for decorating dishes. The newest varieties Levant and Silva have a very bright spectacular light green leaf color and slow stemming, which allows them to be used for flower beds.
America, a business country in need of products for long-distance transportation, gave us a crispy Iceberg lettuce with dense heads of cabbage weighing up to 1 kg. It has a juicy dense leaf texture and a neutral, slightly watery taste that can be varied with other savory greens. Varieties Elburs, Kazbek and early El Marin.
The French, famous gourmets, introduced into circulation the most delicate and very tasty type of salad, combining the properties of Buttery and Romaine - this is the Sucrine variety or mini-romaine (Cabboura, Rodriguez varieties).
Asparagus salad (Svetlana variety) is common in Asia. He uses the stalk for various soups for food.
The variety of lettuce does not end with the most popular variety types listed. Of aesthetic and culinary interest are oak-leaved varieties - Abracadabra, Torin and Red Tamm, varieties with a strongly dissected leaf, like endive, - the Frize variety type (Experience and Vintex), varieties of an intermediate type between Oak-leaved and Curly lettuce - Ceuta, Maghreb. They are especially interesting for decorating the garden and vegetable garden.
It is impossible to ignore the varieties of leaf batavia so familiar to us (Azart, Odessa Kucheryavey, Abrek, Chin Chin, Orpheus), as well as newer ones with a large sprawling rosette and delicious bubbly leaves (Eurydice, Ballet varieties). Until now, the old group of varieties of Oily Lettuce (Limpopo, Varna, etc.) is still popular in Europe, distinguished by its delicate, glossy, as if oily, leaf texture and excellent taste.
Reference by topic: What types of lettuce can be planted in the summer?
BASICS OF LEGAL GROUPING
Briefly consider the requirements of lettuce to environmental conditions. The optimum temperature for seed germination is 15-22°, with its increase (above 25°) at the stage of swelling (the first 24 hours after sowing), problems with seedling heterogeneity are possible. Favorable temperature for growth is 18-24 °. Lettuce is relatively cold-resistant and at a young age can withstand frosts up to 5°, and sometimes even up to 10°. In terms of frost resistance, there are varietal differences - the most resistant varieties with a strong anthocyanin color of the leaves (Silva, Red Tamm, Torin, Yucatan, etc.), as well as varieties with dark green leathery leaves (Romena) and corrugated strongly bubbly leaves (Danko).
In terms of light, lettuce is a long-day plant, demanding on light, so increasing insolation shortens the growing period.
All lettuces grow well only on fertile loose soils with a pH of about 7. The plants have a weak root system, the main number of roots is concentrated in the soil layer of 0-5 cm, therefore, uniform and constant moisture is necessary for normal nutrition.
The dependence of lettuce productivity on the content of microelements in the soil: boron, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt and selenium has also been established. When growing, one should not lose sight of this and use complex microfertilizers.
Reference by topic: What is a salad (photo) - varieties and species, subtleties of cultivation
METHODS FOR GROWING SALAD
There are two ways, and both are good in the garden for different purposes.
It is perfect for getting leaves in a bunch and "baby bodice". It is necessary to carefully prepare the soil and level its surface. The seeding depth is approximately 0 cm. The bottom of the groove must be moistened and the seeds spread out after 5-2 cm, however, then thinning will be required. Distance between rows JO-5 cm depending on the purpose.
The furrows are best mulched with low-lying peat, vermiculite, or coconut substrate. After sowing, the bed should be covered with a thin white agrofiber to protect the topsoil from drying out.
TWO IMPORTANT THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT SALAD:
1. Real Caesar salad is made only on the basis of romaine lettuce.
2. Salad without bitterness is Chinese cabbage.
SALAD THROUGH SEEDLINGS.
This is the main way to grow a large rosette of head and half-head lettuce. Seeds are sown in peat pots or cassettes with a cell size of 3-5 x 3-5 cm, which are filled with acid-neutral seedling soil filled with mineral fertilizers and shed.
Seeds are laid out in 2 pieces and sprinkled with peat chips, coconut or vermiculite. Until the emergence of seedlings, the temperature is maintained at 16-18 ° during the day, and at night a little less - 12-15 °. The earth must be constantly moist. After germination, until the first true leaf appears, the temperature is reduced during the day to 8-12 °, at night to 6-10 °, the humidity should also be slightly lower.
With the formation of the first true leaf, the temperature is slightly increased, and the humidity is lowered. A thermohygrometer is very useful.
The growing period of seedlings is about 30 days, until 3-6 true leaves appear, but it also depends on the size of the cell of the cassette or pot. If it is clear that the plants are cramped, it is better to plant them in a permanent place.
During the growing period, 1-2 top dressings are carried out with fast-acting complex fertilizers and 1 - 2 top dressings with calcium nitrate (20-25 g / 10 l of water).
Before planting lettuce in a garden, a greenhouse, a tunnel, the soil is carefully prepared with compost and mineral fertilizers, then it is cut very well and the surface is leveled. Before planting, it is advisable to roll the bed with a roller. Organic-rich land after cucumbers can not be fertilized.
1. Ceuta salad. 2. Salad Yucatan
Lettuces are planted based on the size of the outlet: crispy and romaine according to the scheme 30-35 × 30-35 cm, oily, batavia, etc. - 25-30 × 25-30 cm, salads like Sucrine or mini-romaine - 20 × 20 cm. You can plant denser, then thin out. When planting, it is advisable to press the root ball into soft soil without digging it.
In no case should you deepen the salad - this leads to a drop of plants or an ugly rosette.
After planting, it is necessary to carefully and abundantly water the salad, and in the next 7 days, control soil moisture and water in time. In this first week, you can not feed the plants and use growth stimulants.
1. Salad Maghreb. 2. Torin salad. 3. Salad Levant. 4. Salad Silva. 5. Salad Varna.
Reference by topic: Plant salad (photo) species cultivation planting and care
WHAT IS IMPORTANT NOT TO MISS WHEN CARE OF SALAD
Lettuce care is easy. Weeding can be avoided by using mulching materials.
It is important to constantly monitor soil moisture, water in a timely manner, plentifully and evenly, in order to prevent marginal leaf burn, which occurs with changes in humidity and due to calcium deficiency in the plant against the background of rapid growth. In addition, with uniform watering, the salad gives a rosette with excellent taste, and with changes in humidity it starts to taste bitter.
When growing headed and semi-headed varieties, the prevention of edge burn should be given special attention. It is important to stimulate the development of the root system by fertilizing with mineral fertilizers with a predominance of phosphorus and nitrogen with a minimum of potassium - for example, a combination of diammophos and potassium sulfate. 7 days after planting, the plants should be watered with solutions of root stimulators and growth regulators. Preventive spraying of plants with a solution of calcium chloride (0%) is very useful. It is harmless and is sold in pharmacies as a remedy for calcium deficiency in the body.
Please note: the development of the marginal burn often occurs during the formation of the rosette or head, especially when the weather changes from cloudy to sunny. Control measures depend on the specific situation.
When the weather changes, additional watering and spraying with calcium chloride will help. In the transition to clear weather after heavy prolonged rains, high air humidity is observed, therefore, it is necessary to slow down the growth of plants and pathogenic fungi by spraying with contact copper-containing fungicides according to the instructions.
GROWING SALAD - VIDEO
© Author: D. GLADKOV, candidate of agricultural sciences, breeder
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