- ✓ PERENNIALS THAT KEEP THEIR LEAVES DURING THE WHOLE GROWING SEASON OR EVEN ALL YEAR ROUND.
- ✓ PLANTS THAT DO NOT LIKE TO GROW QUICKLY AND CONQUER TERRITORY.
- ✓ LONG LIVING HERBAL PLANTS ARE REAL PERENNIUMS.
- ✓ HIGHLY DECORATIVE PLANTS.
- ✓ PERMANENT FLOWERS - THE STANDARD OF PERMANENT
- ✓ DECORATIVE FLOWERING PERMANENT FLOWERS
- ✓ DECORATIVE - deciduous perennials
- ✓ FLOWER BY THE RULES
- ✓ PURE MATHEMATICS
- ✓ LAZY FLOWER BOARD - FROST-RESISTANT PERENNIUMS ON VIDEO
FLOWER BOARD OF PERMANENT FLOWERS
© Author: Nina Vershinina
A common mistake when creating a flower garden is the desire to fill the entire space with bright unusual varieties, rare novelties of perennials, not taking into account the duration of their decorative period. Even if the color scheme is well thought out, the rules for constructing a composition are observed, the proportions are carefully verified, sometimes it is possible to achieve only a temporary, albeit impressive, effect. Any flower garden, flower bed or mixborder should begin with the selection of plants that will hold the composition, prevent it from falling apart and losing shape.
The concept of "decoratively stable perennials" has been widely used since the 80s. the last century. Although it is not directly related to botany, it implies that the plant has certain biological qualities. Usually this group of perennials includes plants with the following properties.
Reference by topic: New varieties of beautiful perennials - name + photo + description
PERENNIALS THAT KEEP THEIR LEAVES DURING THE WHOLE GROWING SEASON OR EVEN ALL YEAR ROUND.
In the meadow flower garden, leucanthemum is adjacent to decoratively stable catnip and geranium.
That is, the so-called ephemeroids (perennial plants with a very short period of development, during which they have time to develop, bloom, bloom, bear fruit, and then their aerial part dies off) do not belong to this group. It will also not include species that require a break in the growing season in summer, such as astrantia, purple echinacea or multi-leaved lupine, which are recommended to be cut in the middle of the season to cause re-blooming in the second half of summer.
PLANTS THAT DO NOT LIKE TO GROW QUICKLY AND CONQUER TERRITORY.
It is necessary that perennials are non-aggressive and, after planting, do not change their location for many years. Such restrained behavior is typical for dense-bush and short-rhizome species. Species that form thickets, such as aconite or double monarda, do not fit into this category; perennials that give abundant self-sowing, as well as plants that need frequent division and seating - rudbeckia, small-flowered.
When the lilies fade, astilbes will be responsible for the beauty of the flower beds.
LONG LIVING HERBAL PLANTS ARE REAL PERENNIUMS.
Juveniles with a lifespan of only 3-4 years, like a middle bell or a catchment area, do not have this property.
HIGHLY DECORATIVE PLANTS.
A perennial should either bloom beautifully and have attractive foliage, or be an ornamental leafy plant.
Despite the fact that in the general assortment of plants selected for a flower garden, the share of decoratively stable perennials is usually no more than 10%, in plantings they need to allocate at least half of the area. You can create a beautiful flower garden that will not require much attention and will last for many years, even from the plants of this group alone. True, in this case it will not be possible to obtain the effect of continuous flowering. To achieve it, it is worth combining decoratively stable plants with those that bloom luxuriantly, adding annuals, bulbs.
By mid-summer, the delphinium fades, and it has to be cut off. The resulting bald spot will be covered by a fountain of arched daylily leaves.
Perennials that tend to fall apart after flowering or lose their beauty, or even disappear without a trace, exposing empty areas in the flower garden, are best planted in small groups. It is advisable not to allocate separate large seats for them. Gorgeous delphiniums and bells, charming in their simplicity, drying out after flowering, crumbling cornflower bushes, Asiatic lilies, leaving unattractive awns after flowering, quickly fading after flowering, oriental poppy and a magnificent dicenter should be planted between decoratively stable plants, alternate with them or have narrow diagonals.
PERMANENT FLOWERS - THE STANDARD OF PERMANENT
For the convenience of choosing plants for a flower garden, all decoratively stable perennials can be divided into two groups.
One will include decorative flowering, the most spectacular during the flowering period. Another group will be decorative and deciduous, which are valued for their beautiful deciduous decoration.
Remontant varieties of daylilies will please with repeated flowering only if the weather is warm in early autumn.
DECORATIVE FLOWERING PERMANENT FLOWERS
The brightest and most common representatives of the group are daylilies, peonies, astilbes, geyhers, geraniums, buzulniks, black cohosh. The flowers of all these plants are very attractive, sometimes simply luxurious, like those of peonies, or graceful, like those of a geyhera, or stand out in an unusual appearance, like a black cohosh, flowering is usually plentiful and long.
The dream of many flower growers is Ito-hybrid peonies, which bloom not with a hat, like their herbaceous counterparts, but open flowers gradually, but for almost 3 weeks. Varieties-chameleons hold several flowers in different stages of opening, and on one bush you can see both a lilac shade, and mother-of-pearl pink, and cream at the same time. Delightfully beautiful motley semi-double Lollipop with light yellow petals, which are splashed with red-violet strokes. Simple but large velvety red flowers in Scarlet Heaven, in varieties Sequestered Sunshine, Going Bananas - yellow, in Pastel Splendour cream petals with a maroon spot.
Almost all types of Rogersia tolerate wintering well, are quite frost-resistant and can do without shelter, with the exception of pinnate and elderberry, which are more sensitive to low temperatures, which can suffer in frosts in the absence of adjacent cover.
Until now, specific daylilies and their old varieties, which are characterized by power and unpretentiousness, are still popular: terry forms of brown-yellow daylily Kwanso, Flore Pleno, yellow daylilies with bright fragrant flowers and Middendorf with golden inflorescences. If they seem rustic, then you can choose real exotics from the spider group. Such daylilies stand out with narrow, long, curved petals and will give the flower garden a tropical flavor. Among the spiders there are both specimens with huge flowers with a diameter of about 30 cm (Black Arrowhead, Long Tall Sally), and "kids" with flowers 7-8 cm - for example, Gadsden Firefly.
Large black cohosh looks light and almost weightless due to the shoots stretching upwards, openwork leaves and elegant white racemes. Black cohosh racemose reaches a height of 2 m, blooms in July. Black cohosh simple is more compact (up to 1 m in height), blooms in autumn - curved spike-shaped inflorescences stand out against the background of purple stems.
The bearded iris is very beautiful, but around July its leaves begin to turn yellow and become stained, besides, old overgrown plants form loose curtains that do not add decorativeness to the flower garden. Siberian and marsh irises are another matter, their graceful flowers remain attractive for a long time, and long xiphoid leaves are good all season.
For forest ferns, soils with an acidic or slightly acidic reaction are suitable.
It is desirable to add sand and loosening organics in the form of peat, leaf litter to clays and heavy loams, enrich poor sandy loams with compost and humus.
The flowers of Siberian irises are not large, but there are many of them: a four-year-old bush can have up to 40 peduncles. Medium-sized petals are easier to resist and retain their beauty in rain and wind. In some varieties, the buds bloom almost simultaneously, in others - sequentially, prolonging the flowering time. Varieties with a branching peduncle bloom for a long time, including the almost white iris Hohe Warte with a lavender tint. One of the tallest is Hohenflug with flower stalks sometimes reaching 1 m and dark blue petals. Varieties Baby Sister, Summerchase Advent, Annick, Little Miss Sunshine do not exceed 5-30 cm.
Unlike the common tall varieties of buzulnik Othello and Desdemona, the Osiris variety series has a more compact size (height with peduncles 50-65 cm), which allows them to be planted in the foreground and used in small flower beds. Abundant yellow-orange "chamomile" flowers appear in the second half of summer, beet-colored peduncles, and foliage can be varied in shape, size and color. Britt-Marie Crawford has the largest leaves. Almost all varieties of the series have dark red leaf lining.
Osiris Fantasy has leaf plates with a wavy serrated edge and a purple-pink underside. The triangular-rounded serrated leaves of Osiris Cafe Noir are dark green above with a brownish tinge, the reverse side of the leaf is dark purple.
Osiris Evolution has rounded leaves that play with different shades of golden yellow, cream and pink depending on the light level.
The foliage of some decorative flowering perennials is no less charming than their flowers. So, the Volzhanka dioecious Kneiffii has lacy, almost filiform leaves, the cuff forms neat curtains of silver-green silky leaves. These plants, and especially for the gamer, whose foliage makes it a real decoration of the flower garden throughout the season, can rightly be attributed to the group of ornamental perennials.
Reference by topic: What perennial flowers to plant on the balcony (herbaceous species)
DECORATIVE - deciduous perennials
Ferns with a cup-shaped bush and openwork fronds are a wonderful and reliable decoration of a flower garden, especially a shady one. Feels good in the shade Nippon kochedyzhnik with an unusually decorative color of the leaves, which, depending on the variety, can have a color from silver-ash to beige-silver with a transition to green towards the ends of the plates. Leaf veins - from reddish - to beet-purple.
Strong lighting with sufficient moisture can withstand Asian chistous. The height of an adult plant is about 1 m, the fronds are light green, spore-bearing fronds growing from the center of the rosette are densely strewn with dark golden sori and resemble paniculate inflorescences.
Of the broad-leaved plants, it is worth noting the host, Rogersia, bergenia, Goryanka, fennel, hellebore and decorative varieties of rhubarb. All of them have pretty flowers or inflorescences, but the decorative effect of their leaves is more pronounced.
Let's take a host as an example. Planted in a flower garden or rabatka, it is able to grow in one place for more than 20 years. Along with a variety of colors, both the size and shape of the leaf are admirable. The smallest hostas are only about 10 cm high, while the tallest ones reach 1 m and grow up to 2 m in diameter. The leaves can be from huge-rounded with a heart-shaped base, smooth or corrugated, to elongated-oblong with strongly wavy edges.
In terms of foliage diversity, only geyhers can compete with hostas. Their leaves are pure green or dark green, there are red-leaved forms of different shades - both warm and cold, purple. In the Hollywood variety, purple foliage has a noble silvery sheen, in Obsidian, Black Beauty, Mocha the leaves are very dark, almost black. There are varieties with decorative venation - dark green, silver, wine red, forms with well-defined spotting (Snow Fire, Mardi Gras). The leaf can be entire, with a smooth or scalloped edge, deep-lobed.
Worthy of admiration are the leaves of the rod-gers. In one of the tallest species of Rogersia horse-chestnut leaf, young foliage at the beginning of growth has a purple color with a bronze tint, then the color changes to green. At the peak of flowering, when flower stalks adorn long (up to 50 cm) white or pink panicles, the plant height reaches 2 m. then become deep green. Veins stand out in relief on its sheet plates. The young leaves of Chocolate Wings are a warm burgundy brown, turning bronze as they mature and dark green before flowering.
As showy as Rogersia, but perhaps more exotic than rhubarb, its large basal leaves can be triangular, ovoid or round in shape and form a dense rosette. The surface of the leaf plate can be both bubbly and smooth, and the edges can be wavy or even. The leaves are located on long fleshy petioles, which, depending on the variety, are completely colored or only at the base.
Almost round leaves of Maksimovich rhubarb reach 60 cm in width with a length of 50 cm. The meter stem carries a large greenish-white pyramidal paniculate inflorescence. Round-ovate, almost flat, with only a slightly wavy edge, the leaves of compact rhubarb, or Altai. Common rhubarb has unusually curly foliage, which at the beginning of the dissolution is strongly wrinkled, and later decorated with a wavy edge. Palm-shaped and Tangut rhubarb are monumental giants, reaching a diameter of about 2 m and raising flower stalks to a three-meter height. The hand-shaped rhubarb of Atrosanguineum is very unusual: the unfolding leaves are intense purple with red petioles, then purple tones appear in color, and then the leaves turn dark green, only the underside retains a reddish color.
Fennel has openwork foliage, strongly dissected into thread-like lobes, it creates a delicate airy effect. The young leaves of the ornamental variety Rigrigeit are bronze-purple, becoming bluish with age. Giant Bronze leaves are coppery, becoming brownish-bronze over time.
Goryanka and hellebore have evergreen leaves - dark, leathery, with which they emerge from under the snow, which is very valuable in our climate. Both plants also bloom beautifully. The black hellebore has many varieties with large double snow-white or pink flowers. Eastern hellebore and its varieties in the middle lane bloom in early spring and immediately become a bright spot of a shady mixborder.
FLOWER BY THE RULES
Even if there is a taste and a little experience with plants, the art of creating a flower garden still needs to be learned. Knowledge of certain techniques and the ability to use them will allow you to combine plants into a successful composition.
Before designing a flower garden, you need to clearly understand where you will look at it from. Flower beds, which can be admired from all sides, are called island, they usually define smooth closed borders.
Plants in each flower garden are arranged according to the principle of tiering: high ones should not block the lower ones, so that the decorative qualities of each can be fully appreciated. In the island flower garden, the central part is assigned to tall plants, in the flower garden of a one-sided view - the background.
Each plant blooms for a short time, on average about two weeks, but with the right combination of different species, continuous flowering can be achieved. For example, from the early flowering bulbs, you can choose muscari, crocuses, daffodils, blueberries. Hellebores, corydalis, marigolds will continue to bloom, followed by bergenia, irises, bathing suits, then the time will come for astilbes, phloxes, lilies, asters, chrysanthemums, geleniums, and colchicums will complete the season.
The impression of a flower garden largely depends on the chosen color scheme. White color conveys peace and silence, cheers up on a cloudy day, but in the bright sun it loses its significance and may seem boring. Small strokes of blue - irises, forget-me-nots, bells, aquilegia - will revive and emphasize the elegance of a white flower garden.
The most common and balanced compositions are in pink-purple tones. Such flower beds are pleasant and familiar to the eye. To create them, you can take hyacinths and pink crocuses, ground cover subulate phloxes, perennial asters, and of course, roses, clematis, peonies.
If you want to add more bright colors and emotions to the garden, then in the flower garden you should combine “fiery” shades - scarlet monarda, daffodils, yellow daylily, golden melissa, snapdragon, gel-opsis.
Each plant individually can look quite simple, but combinations are important in a flower garden: horizontally located inflorescences emphasize the power of vertical ones, openwork foliage contrasts with large leaves. By successfully combining different plants, you can get a stunning effect, but only if they are planted not in single specimens, but in curtains. An exception is made only for the so-called architectural views, which attract the eye with their impressive size, expressive leaves, and unusual silhouette. These are undersized conifers, and from perennials - eryngium, mullein, bergenia, large rhubarb, some cereals.
It would seem that if in a flower garden the requirements of plants for illumination, humidity, fertility and acidity of the soil coincide and are met, then they should fully develop, demonstrating their beauty. But it may happen that some will wither away, while others will forget about modesty and begin to decisively crowd out their neighbors. It is impossible to foresee everything, and a flower garden needs attention and careful care throughout its life.
The tallest plants in the central part of the double-view flower garden should not exceed 1/3 of its diameter.
The maximum height of distant plants in a one-sided flower bed is equal to its width.
It is recommended to plant an odd number of plants in one group; with an asymmetric arrangement, they will look most natural. For 1 sq. m of flower garden area requires approximately 7-11 perennials or annuals 20-40 cm high, 5-7 - 50-80 cm high, 3-5 - over 80 cm.
LAZY FLOWER BOARD - FROST-RESISTANT PERENNIUMS ON VIDEO
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