- ✓ TYPES OF STRAWBERRY
- ✓ BIOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE EARTH
- ✓ CARE AND INFLUENCE OF THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ON THE GROWTH AND FRUITING OF THE EARTH
- ✓ REPRODUCTION OF THE EARTH
- ✓ CARE OF YOUNG PLANTATIONS AND FOR A FRUIT-BEARING PLANTATION OF zemkluniki
- ✓ DISEASES AND PESTS OF EARTHCLING
- ✓ GRADE VARIETIES
- ✓ ZEMKLUNIKA KUPCHIHA - REVIEWS ABOUT THE VARIETY ON VIDEO
CULTIVATION OF A ZERNELUNIKA - LANDING AND CARE
Zemklunika is an interspecific strawberry-strawberry hybrid. Unlike garden strawberries, this hybrid was bred specifically to produce a new berry with better characteristics. Several scientists have been engaged in selection in this direction for a while. It was bred back in the 60s of the last century by the breeder T.S. Kantor by a special selection method - chemical mutagenesis, but the hybrid plants turned out to be largely sterile (with poor fruit set) and small-fruited. Later, this shortcoming was eliminated, as a result of which an officially registered earthworm appeared.
In the future, breeders simply bred different varieties of earthworms that differed in berry size, taste, aroma and yield, but they all had one thing in common - these are interspecific hybrids obtained by crossing garden strawberries and strawberries.
TYPES OF STRAWBERRY
For the sake of fairness, I would like to return to the origins of the appearance of earthworms - to the types of strawberries. The exact number of its species has not been established by science, there are, apparently, 20-30 species. There are still unexplored species. Only a few wild-growing species live in nature.
Strawberries belong to the genus Fragaria (genus Fragaria); naturally distributed in Eurasia and America. The genus of strawberries is forest, mesophytic in origin (i.e., occurring under conditions of medium moisture).
Fragaria vescal - wild strawberry. This is a perennial herbaceous plant, 5-20 cm tall, rhizomatous, mustache long. Stems are erect, pubescent below, basal leaves are trifoliate, on long petioles, pubescent, with protruding hairs. flowers are bisexual, receptacle glabrous or slightly hairy. Fruits up to 2 cm long, round or conical, red or white. In the wild, it grows on forest edges, glades in low herbs, among shrubs in the European part of Russia, Siberia, the Caucasus, Central Asia, almost throughout Western Europe. Reproduces vegetatively. The fruits are eaten raw or they are used to make jam, jam, etc.
Fragaria Virginia Duch - virgin strawberries. It is a perennial herbaceous plant with a rhizome. Stem 15-25 cm tall, pubescent, erect at first, then decumbent. The leaves are serrated along the edge, on long (20-30 cm) pubescent petioles. Inflorescences 3-5-flowered. Flowers bisexual. The fruits are round, dark red. The pulp is pink, juicy, fragrant, somewhat sour. In the wild, it lives in forests, on the edges and herbs in North America. Little is now cultivated, but in the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries it occupied an important position in culture.
Fragaria chiloonsls Duch - Chilean strawberry. Perennial herbaceous strongly pubescent plant, 15-25 cm tall, with a thick rhizome. The stem is upright. The leaves are leathery. broadly oval, serrated along the margin, glossy, harshly pubescent below. The peduncle is short, the inflorescences are few-flowered, the flowers are 0 cm in diameter, often unisexual, but there are also bisexual. In the wild, it lives in America - from Alaska to South America. In Chile, strawberries are distributed from the coast to the limit line of coniferous forests, almost up to a height of 5 m, where in winter frosts reach -3000C. Domesticating wild Chilean strawberries. the local population selected plants with bisexual flowers. The fruits are large, sometimes very large, 25-2 cm in diameter, light red. The pulp is fragrant, very dense, but the taste and aroma are worse than those of virgin strawberries.
Two types of strawberries, virgin strawberry and Chilean strawberry, perfectly interbreed.
Fragaria ananassa Duch - garden strawberry (pineapple), obtained by interspecific crossing of Chilean strawberries and virgin strawberries, which was the initial standard in the history of the development of garden strawberries. So, garden strawberry (pineapple) is a perennial herbaceous rhizome plant. 20-45 cm tall, mustache short. The stem is initially erect, then lying under the weight of the fruit, pubescent along its entire length with protruding hairs. Inflorescences are more or less many-flowered. The fruits are large, up to 5 cm in diameter, very diverse in shape, often pyramidal, red or white-reddish. sometimes white, hardly separated from the bed. According to the content of vitamin C, garden strawberries in the group of berry crops are second only to black currants. The fruits are used. first of all, fresh or frozen, in addition, they are processed into jams, jams, juices, marmalade, ice cream, jelly, candy fillings, liqueurs, wine, liqueurs.
Currently, there are more than 20 thousand varieties of garden strawberries in the world.
FviridisDuch - green strawberry - perennial herbaceous plant 5-20 cm tall with rhizome, whiskers are very short or not formed. Stem erect, pubescent. Basal leaves with hairy petioles. The inflorescence is thyroid, few-flowered, covered with an apical leaf. The flowers are large, bisexual, the fruits are spherical or obovate, yellowish white, reddish only at the top, very fragrant.
In the wild, it lives in meadows, open grassy slopes, on forest edges almost throughout Russia, except for the north, and almost throughout Western Europe. The local population is engaged in the industrial collection of fruits, and also collects it for their own consumption fresh and for jam.
Fmoschata Duch - nutmeg strawberry (that is, what is popularly called strawberries, is actually one of the types of strawberries). This is a perennial, often dioecious plant, 15-40 cm tall, with a rhizome densely dressed with remnants of leaves and stipules; the whiskers are short and thin, often they do not form. The stem is erect, glandular, pubescent, petioles are long. Inflorescence corymbose, of 5-12 flowers on short densely pubescent pedicels, fading they are significantly lengthened. The flowers are large, the plants are dioecious, but there is no strict dioeciousness. Flowers are functionally masculine, functionally feminine, strictly masculine, and strictly feminine. In wild strawberries, the fruits are ovoid, small, spherical with a neck, often white or one-sided pink. In cultivated forms, the fruits are somewhat larger, dark cherry, purple, the pulp is loose, with a strong nutmeg smell. The yield is low.
This type of strawberry arose, possibly, as a result of interspecific crossing of wild strawberry and green strawberry. In the wild, it grows in forests, in bushes, in shady places and in high herbage in the European part of Russia - up to the Volga. In Europe, this species was domesticated, but due to dioeciousness and low yields, it was replaced by garden strawberries. According to tradition, the people often continue to call garden strawberries strawberries, although by and large strawberries are one of the types of strawberries.
So, first, because of the peculiar aroma and pleasant taste, strawberries obtained by crossing Chilean strawberries and virgin strawberries received the scientific (Latin) name “pineapple”, and later, having conquered the whole world and pushing other berries to second place, became garden strawberries.
And now, if we approach the issue with scientific accuracy, it turns out that strawberries are nothing more than nutmeg strawberries. And strawberry, naturally, is a type of strawberry. It differs from the usual for us garden strawberries in that male and female flowers are on different plants. This is called duality. In addition, its corrugated leaves have obvious veins and are painted in a lighter color than those of pineapple strawberries. Strawberry bushes are more powerful, and flower stalks are higher than leaves. The size of strawberries is smaller than that of garden strawberries, but larger than that of wild strawberries.
Given the dioeciousness, strawberries are planted in such a way that there is one male bush for 5 women. At the same time, they make sure that the male bush does not grow, letting out a mustache (male plants tend to reproduce more intensively).
An interspecific hybrid of garden strawberries and strawberries is a zemklunika. It is often called zemklubnik (with the letter "b"), apparently because of ignorance and habit of pronunciation. Unlike garden strawberries, this hybrid was bred specifically to produce a new berry with better characteristics.
The taste and aroma of zemklunika are really impressive and are different - it all depends on the variety. Some of them are somewhat similar in taste to wild strawberries (but even tastier and more aromatic), while others have a completely unique taste and more nutmeg smell. At the same time, the size of the fruits of many varieties is not inferior to garden strawberries.
The nutmeg flavor was inherited by the hybrid from the strawberry. Winter hardiness, disease resistance and high flower stalks are also inherited from strawberries.
In the name of the earthworm hybrid, the notorious letter “b” was deliberately removed so that the name of the hybrid differed from its parents, but at the same time hinted at the origin.
By the way, it was not the name that became the most remarkable, but the qualitative characteristics of the new plant, since the earthworm surpassed its "ancestors", embodying the optimal combination of their best qualities. Zemklunika berries are rich in vitamins and microelements. They are very tasty fresh, and jam from them has a special taste and aroma. Zemklunika is excellent for freezing for the winter, both in the form of puree and in the form of whole berries, which perfectly retain their aroma and taste after defrosting. Due to its unpretentiousness and outstanding commercial qualities, earthworms deserve more attention from amateur gardeners.
BIOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE EARTH
STRUCTURE OF THE BUSH
The zemklunika bush consists of above-ground and underground parts. The aerial part of the bush consists of a shortened branched stem with trifoliate leaves, peduncles and mustaches. Branching stems are called horns. The length of the horns is 1 - 3 cm, and their number increases with age from 1-2 to 10 pieces and more by 3-5 years. The number of leaves on the horns depends on the growing conditions. Under more favorable conditions, the leaves and the bush itself are large: large leaves are at a level of 25-30 cm and higher above the soil surface. The height of the bush depends on the cultivar, and the degree of leafiness depends on the age of the plant.
Everyone knows that leaves are a “biofactory”, in which organic substances in the form of soluble carbohydrates and starch are produced from water and carbon dioxide in the light during photosynthesis. The larger the leaf surface, the more organic matter is produced, the larger the plant and the higher the yield. As a rule, the leaves of all varieties of earthworms consist of three leaf blades attached with short petioles to the upper part of the common petiole. The size of the leaf blades of different varieties is not the same. The size of the leaves is related to the size of the berries: small-leaved varieties have corresponding berries, and large-leaved varieties have large ones. The underside of the leaves is usually pubescent with adpressed hairs, while on the upper side the hairs are protruding and more sparse. Dense pubescence and a dense leaf blade are characteristic of more drought-resistant varieties. The leaf cuttings of almost all varieties are pubescent with hairs directed perpendicularly or at an angle. The pink-red color of the petioles is associated with the bright red and dark red color of the berries. Zemklunika leaves are renewed three times a year: in spring, summer and autumn.
The life span of leaves that appeared at different times is not the same. Leaves formed in spring are the largest and live for 70-80 days (from April to June). They are replaced by summer leaves growing in late June - early July. Spring leaves provide a harvest, summer leaves - the laying of flower buds and the accumulation of reserve nutrients that help plants endure the adverse winter conditions, autumn leaves retain the viability of the bush until spring. At the base of each leaf, in the so-called sinus, buds are formed. In the axils of the upper leaves, flower buds are most often formed. In the axils of the lower leaves, as a rule, vegetative ones are laid, from which mustache lashes are formed.
In the early stages of plant development, there is no difference between flower and vegetative buds. However, in the future, some of them continue to develop along the vegetative path, the other - along the generative one. The transition to a generative path of development depends on external and internal factors. Among the internal ones is the biological feature of the variety, its hereditary properties, the internal predisposition to form fewer and more flower buds. External factors include: day length, illumination, temperature, moisture and mineral nutrition. Using external factors, you can control the crop.
Each horn bears on its top a flower bud with the beginnings of a peduncle. Zemklunika inflorescences are formed from ramifications of peduncles and consist of several orders of double ramifications. At their base, one flower is formed. The correctness of this type of branching is sometimes violated: one of the main arms of the inflorescence develops more strongly than the second, or instead of two branches, three are formed. There are no berries at the base of individual branches. Inflorescences of the most developed peduncles mainly have 3-4 branching orders. The terminal branches of the inflorescence ending in flowers are called pedicels or stalks. With a close arrangement of branches, the flowers are collected in a short brush, the peduncles are called compact.
With a remote arrangement of branches, the flowers are collected in a long brush, the peduncles are called sprawling. The number of flowers in the inflorescence is a varietal feature and changes with the age of the plant. Annual plants have only 5-7 flowers, biennials and older - up to 15-30 flowers. The first flowers are the largest in the inflorescence. Their size is determined by the size of the corolla: in some varieties it reaches 5-5 cm in diameter, in others - 5 cm. In most varieties of earthworms, the flowers are bisexual (perfect), well pollinated by their own pollen. Numerous stamens surround the receptacle in the center of the flower in the form of a tubercle, on which numerous pistils are located. From the receptacle, a berry is subsequently formed, and from the pistils - achenes.
In some varieties, the stamens are underdeveloped. Such flowers are called female pistillate or imperfect. Varieties in which both stamens and pistils are equally developed are called bisexual. If the stamens function normally, and the pistils are underdeveloped, incapable of fertilization, the flowers are called physiologically male. The shape of the receptacle determines the shape of the berry that will develop from it. Since the receptacles are relatively small, and in addition, densely covered with pistils, they usually look almost the same: hemispherical or wide-conical.
Flowering does not occur in all buds at the same time, but begins with the central one, located on the main axis. Then flowers bloom on the branches of the first and subsequent orders. The size of the berries and their mass depend on the variety, the order of the berries on the peduncle. maturation, age and condition of plants.
At present, large-fruited varieties have a mass of fruits of 12-15 grams or more, and individual berries reach a mass of 120-130 g. Berries of the first order are spherical, truncated-conical, conical, oval (ovoid), barrel-shaped, wedge-shaped, cuboid, comb-shaped ( the result of the fusion of two or three flowers).
The achenes of most varieties are semi-immersed in the pulp, in some they are significantly deepened or located superficially. This property is valuable as an indicator of the high transportability of berries. Berries with submerged seeds are not transportable. The seeds mostly turn red at the same time as the berry, more intense on the sunny side, and on the shaded side they can remain yellowish-green. In some varieties, dark red seeds stand out on light red berries, or yellow seeds against a bright red background of the berry. In most varieties with dark surface color of berries, the flesh is red, in varieties with lighter berries, the flesh is pink or even white.
At the surface of the berries, the flesh is colored more strongly than in the center. The pulp has a different density, fills the entire berry or forms a cavity inside, in which there is a dense rod connected to the pedicel.
Berries vary in size and taste. The largest berries grow first. Subsequently, they become smaller, in some varieties several times. Usually berries with a diameter of 2-5 cm and larger grow by 3-20% of flowers, and sometimes less. The highest quality yield is formed in the first or second year after planting. In the future, the number of horns, peduncles and flowers increases, and the size and quality of berries decrease. This is due to the aging of the plant, primarily the root system.
Mustache zemklunika are formed from the lower three buds. They appear in late May - early June. But at this time, earthworms enter the phase of flowering and fruiting, and for this reason they develop very slowly. With the end of fruiting, the number of mustaches increases significantly, and their growth continues until late autumn.
The mustache of the earthworm is a long cord-like shoot with nodes. Shoots formed from the axils of the leaves of the mother plant are called mustaches of the first order. They are able to branch with the formation of lashes (whiskers of the second order, and with abundant nitrogen nutrition - and lashes of the third order). On all lashes (whiskers), daughter rosettes are formed, which differ significantly in the degree of development, which depends on the period of formation and the order of branching of the lash. The earlier the rosette formed and the closer to the mother plant, the more developed it is and the higher its potential yield. The ability to quantitatively form mustaches, rosettes, the length of internodes on lashes determine varietal characteristics.
Some varieties of zemklunika form whiskers up to 100 cm long. The productivity of one mother plant of zemklunika is approximately 15-30 rosettes, which serve as planting material for laying new plantations.
The underground part of the zemklunika bush consists of a perennial rhizome and fibrous roots. In the first year of life, the root system does not have a rhizome and consists of conductive roots with a diameter of 1-3 mm, located at the base of the rosette, and thinner suction ones, covering the middle and lower parts of the main roots in abundance.
Initially, the roots begin to develop in the lower part of the rosettes in the form of air tubercles on the nodes of creeping mustache shoots. They are the beginnings of the largest roots of a new plant and determine the capacity of the development of the bush, as well as its yield in the first one or two years. The growth rate of earthworm roots changes in waves. The most active root formation and growth are observed in spring, during the growth of young ovaries. It gradually fades and almost completely stops during the ripening period of the crop. After fruiting, the plants are ready for a new wave of root formation and growth, which peaks at the beginning of autumn. By the end of autumn - the beginning of winter, the activity of the roots decreases again.
Autumn earthworm roots live 8-9 months - from August-September to April. They ensure the efficiency of the leaves, in the axils of which
at this time, flower buds are laid. The growth of the ovary and the filling of berries are provided by the roots formed in the spring. At the base of the horns, young roots are formed to replace the old ones, they reach the surface of the soil and are fixed in it. l
Earthflower roots have the property of contractility, that is, they can reduce their length and thus draw the base of the stem into the soil. As a result, the base of the strawberry bush is annually introduced into the soil and this is how the underground part of the stem, the rhizome, is formed. It serves as a storage of spare substances and reserve kidneys. In case of loss of the aerial part, the rhizome can give life to a new plant from spare buds.
The roots formed in the previous year turn black, lose their functions and die. The roots grown in the spring are still functioning: they retain active suction roots of yellow and light brown color. To replace both, new ones are formed - from the upper part of the root collar. Simultaneously with the deepening of part of the stem into the soil, the lower part of the rhizome dies off.
The depth of the roots of strawberries is relatively small - 10-40 cm, on heavy soils the roots usually develop a layer of 7-25 cm, on lighter soils - 10-40 cm. The development of the root system of strawberries is closely related to the depth of pre-planting cultivation.
CARE AND INFLUENCE OF THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ON THE GROWTH AND FRUITING OF THE EARTH
In relation to light, earthworm is a light-loving, short- or long-day plant with a quantitative type of photoperiodic reaction. Basically, the laying of the kidneys in her occurs on a short, and flowering and fruiting - on a long (16-hour) or continuous light. Light has a direct impact on the general condition, growth, development and productivity of culture. However, the varieties differ in the degree of shade tolerance, some varieties have significant shade tolerance - only the crop in the shade ripens 10-12 days later.
Under natural conditions, with a lack of light, the culture grows worse and bears less fruit, the ripening period of the crop increases. In general, flower stalks, flowers and ovaries are the first to respond to a decrease in light intensity. Peduncles develop weaker, the flowers on them become smaller and smaller. With a decrease in illumination, the number of sterile flowers (which did not give an ovary) increases, and the yield decreases.
It is erroneously believed that in southern regions with an abundance of sunlight, such shading is not only harmful, but even useful, as it protects the plant from the scorching rays of the sun. Excessive thickening of plantings is also harmful - at the same time, some of the leaves are in mutual shading, which damages fruiting.
For earthworms, not only the intensity of light is important, but also the length of the day. In relation to the length of the day, earthworms are divided into short-day and neutral varieties.
Most common varieties are short-day. The laying of flower buds in them takes place on a short, lasting 12 hours or less (at the end of summer-autumn), day, against the background of decreasing air and soil temperatures, flowering - on a long day (in spring). In the absence of a short day and low positive temperatures, short-day varieties do not form flower buds; in autumn, such varieties do not produce a crop.
Long-day varieties - those in which the laying of flower buds takes place mainly on a long day. If they are kept on a short day, they will not bloom. The autumn harvest in this group of varieties is the main one, and the spring one is, as it were, additional, on flower stalks that did not have time to develop in late autumn due to low temperatures.
Zemklunika, like any other plant, is very responsive to ambient temperature. There are three cardinal temperature points: minimum, maximum and optimum. Throughout the life of plants, they are constantly changing. In the annual cycle, earthworms go through several biological stages against the backdrop of changing environmental conditions. The vegetation of the culture begins when the air warms up to 5-8 C.
The growth of peduncles and the formation of buds begin when the average daily air temperature reaches 8-10C. At a temperature of 15-18C, flowering begins, and at a temperature
20-22 * C - ripening. Root growth is noted in spring, at a temperature of the root layer of 2-3C, i.e. 8-10 days before the start of leaf growth. Due to stocks accumulated in the previous year. In autumn, at a temperature of 2-3C, development stops. Budding of earthcloths begins 2-3 weeks after the start of the growing season. The period from the beginning of budding to flowering is about 30 days, and the same amount is required for the growth of berries from flowering to ripening.
The optimum daily temperature is 20-22, 89C. To achieve the next phase of earthworm development, a certain amount of positive temperatures is required: early varieties bloom at a temperature of 180-223C, medium - 223-276C, and late ones at a temperature of 255-353°C.
The flowering period is characterized by the activation of growth processes. For 10-12 days, during which flowering takes place, the peduncle grows from 1-5 to 2-20 cm. The leaves also reach the maximum size (their height increases from 30-2 cm to 5-20 cm and above).
In the interphase period of flowering-ripening (30-35 days), growth in height still continues, new formation of leaves proceeds at a much slower pace and the activity of their formation gradually fades. By the beginning of mass flowering, their number reaches 10-20 per bush, at the beginning of berry ripening - 12-25, and by the end of ripening, the number of leaves may decrease (leaves damaged when picking berries die off, new ones do not form until the end of harvesting).
During the growing season, including the formation of daughter plants and the laying of flower buds, earthworms need 145-179 days. It should be noted that the culture grows well in the northern regions with a short summer within 120 days. In relation to winter frosts, it is considered quite stable. Really. it can be grown in areas where other fruit species often freeze slightly, for example, in Norway, Finland, and northern Russia. In areas with a stable cover in winter, the problem of plant freezing is reduced, since under a layer of snow the temperature rarely drops below -5C.
It is also possible to grow it in areas with unstable snow cover and frosts down to - AXNUMXC, since the earthworm is a very frost-resistant crop and can withstand frosts down to - AOC. The most resistant to low temperatures in earthworms are the fruiting organs - flower stalks with flower buds. Within the flower, pistils are considered the most sensitive to low temperatures. If the pistils are damaged, the flowers bloom as usual, but no berries are produced. Long-term observations show. that earthworms are periodically damaged in winter by low temperatures, but, as a rule, not to such an extent as to completely die. Damage is usually associated with the death of individual horns on the plant, but not of entire bushes.
Zemklunika is a very mysterious plant. In terms of winter dormancy. Most types of berry crops, including earthworms, originate in a climate with a more or less pronounced seasonal rhythm. This has left its mark on all deciduous plants: when autumn comes, they shed their leaves and enter a state of organic or deep dormancy, from which they can only get out after receiving a certain dose of low positive temperatures. Without the passage of this period in the annual cycle of development, deciduous plants are unable to grow or bear fruit.
Zemklunika also enters a state of deep dormancy (you can get out of it after at least a month of being in the cold at temperatures from 1 C to - 7 C). It must be taken into account that earthworm is an evergreen plant, and many evergreen plants do not need winter dormancy.
As further experiments have shown, a state of deep rest is not entirely necessary for the earthlings. Biologically, it can bear fruit both after passing through the dormant state and without it. For the growth and fruiting of plants that did not receive cold treatment, a temperature above 15 C and a long (16-hour) day with a light intensity of at least 0 kW / sq. m.
HOW TO WATER
Zemklunika is a moisture-loving plant, given that. that it is an interspecific hybrid of moisture-loving garden strawberries and strawberries. It should be noted that garden strawberries and strawberries were formed under the conditions of the surface layer, which is always more humid. Large leaves also indicate its tendency to exist in conditions of high humidity. At high temperatures and low humidity, plants feel oppressed. Many have noticed that when the air temperature rises significantly, and the humidity decreases, the growth rate of the leaves and roots of the crop fades. Growth resumes with renewed vigor with a decrease in temperature and an increase in humidity.
With a high water supply, the development of earthworms proceeds without deviations and you can count on a higher yield than in conditions of insufficient water supply. Varieties are not equally related to moisture deficiency, drought, optimal moisture conditions. The moisture content in the leaves of the most drought-resistant varieties is higher than that of less drought-resistant ones. This indicator changes both during the day and during the growing season.
Varieties with low water-retaining capacity are characterized by higher (by 34-60%) yield and by 50-75% economic productivity of photosynthesis. There were cases when drought reduced the yield of some varieties and did not affect others.
This varietal feature is often associated with the degree of development of the root system. In less drought-resistant varieties, it has a surface placement. The root system of earthworms is located superficially (in a layer of 15-30 cm), therefore it is irrigated more often than perennial horticultural crops, for example, weekly with small irrigation rates (100-150 ml / ha or 10-15 mm) or less often, but more abundantly 350- 400 ml/ha (35-40 mm). On heavy soils during the growing season, earthworms require an average of 415 mm of water, and on light soils - 10% more. Of this amount, 4-5 mm of water is consumed daily for surface evaporation, especially in sunny and windy weather. The total water consumption from the soil layer is at the level of 15-17 liters per plant, depending on the variety, per season. When cultivating strawberries, the critical level of relative humidity lies in the range of 20-30%.
In the southern zone, only on some days during dry winds, air humidity drops to 30-35% even in the driest season. During the ripening of berries, the relative humidity does not fall below 45-50%. Humidity of air and soil is one of the regulated factors. In areas with a deficit of atmospheric and soil moisture, high yields are achieved by maintaining the optimal moisture content of the root layer and the use of special agricultural practices (one of them is the displacement of the growing season).
Most of the moisture consumed by earthworms goes to surface evaporation. Mulching contributes to the conservation of moisture in the soil, its more economical use.
SOILS FOR EARTH
Zemklunika is undemanding to soils. It can be grown on a wide variety of soil types, with the exception of waterlogged, saline, with a close occurrence of groundwater (above 80 cm) and high carbonate content.
On carbonate soils, many varieties of earthworms chlorose to varying degrees, especially after fruiting. Chlorosis begins to appear when the soil surface "boils" from exposure to 10% hydrochloric acid. Calcium is an iron antagonist: being in excess, it prevents the absorption of iron ions by the roots and causes leaf chlorosis. In addition, on soils rich in lime, iron salts become insoluble and become inaccessible to plant roots.
Leaf chlorosis is a complex indicator. This disease can cause a lack of magnesium, potassium, zinc. Bushes affected by chlorosis are smaller than healthy plants and have low productivity.
REPRODUCTION OF THE EARTH
Zemklunika is propagated by the same methods as garden strawberries and strawberries, namely:
1. Mustache reproduction.
2. Reproduction by picking in the open field.
3. Dive into cold greenhouses and greenhouses.
4. Reproduction by bush dividing.
5. Growing seedlings of strawberries with a closed root system.
6. Propagation by sowing seeds.
Zemklunika forms many tendrils with daughter rosettes that easily root in any soil, without any help, making it easy to grow.
For the reproduction of earthworms with a mustache, the so-called uterine plantations are laid - mother liquors. The laying of the mother liquor can be carried out in March-April, in mid-August with freshly harvested plants and then with digging seedlings of earthworms in the summer of next year. Immediately after planting the seedlings, watering is carried out at a rate of 40 l / sq. m. In the future, watering is carried out at intervals of 7-15 days, depending on the condition of the plants and weather conditions. A month before the start of digging seedlings, watering is stopped.
Herbicides can be used to control weeds. During the growing season, the soil on the mother liquor is kept clean and loose. Twice since the laying of the mother liquor, flower stalks are removed. To increase the yield of seedlings, ammonium nitrate is fertilized at least twice a summer at a dose of 50-100 g/sq. m. During the growing season, the mother liquor is examined at least twice for infestation with pests and diseases, at the same time they are tested for purity. Atypical plants are removed and burned.
For preventive purposes against aphids, cicadas and fungal diseases, chemical treatments with fungicides and insecticides are carried out. Processing is completed two weeks before digging seedlings. For breeding, it is better to take the first 1-2 rosettes from young whiskers with at least three leaves. Newly obtained seedlings can be planted to obtain a harvest of earthworms.
The essence of the method of growing by picking is that unrooted or weakly rooted rosettes are placed in an environment favorable for the formation of roots and leaves. As a result, after 3-4 weeks, quite normal plants develop, suitable for planting at a constant time.
The essence of the method of growing seedlings with a closed root system is as follows: for growing seedlings in pots, soil mixtures should be prepared that pass water well and have nutritional value sufficient for engraftment and start-up growth of plants. A peat pot, filled with soil, rotted manure and river sand in equal parts, is substituted under the still unrooted rosette rosettes on mustache lashes. A small depression is made under the vessel in the soil, and the sockets are pressed to the surface.
substrate in pots. With good water supply, new leaves and roots appear on young plants in a week. After 10-14 days, the roots already penetrate the walls of peat pots and begin to branch. By the end of the third week, such rosettes have a bunch of roots concentrated in the lower third of the pot, and up to 3-5 developed leaves. It should be noted that the so-called "beardless" varieties of earthworms (which do not form a mustache) reproduce sexually - by sowing seeds and dividing the bush.
Reproduction is simpler by dividing the bush, but the number of daughter plants obtained is low and depends on the number of horns in the bush. It is better to root at the end of the growing season, when a large amount of reserve substances accumulate in the plant and new roots quickly form. With a sharp knife, the bush is divided into separate rosettes, the most developed leaves are removed from them and planted in a prepared place with well-loosened soil. On horns with roots, leaves can not be cut off. When planting, they monitor the observance of the depth: the growth point should be at the level of the soil horizon.
In seed propagation, great importance should be attached to the selection of particularly productive mother plants. In this case, mother plants should also be constantly monitored. The leaves of the mother plants should be healthy, the yield should be high, and the berries should correspond in shape, color and taste to the propagated variety. Fully ripe berries for seed are taken only from the best mother plants. A thin layer of pulp with seeds is cut from these berries. This part of the berries is laid out on glass plates or dried between sheets of filter paper. It is highly advisable to add water to the dried pulp of the berries for a better separation of the seeds and let the mixture ferment. After straining, the residue is air-dried again. The dried mass is ground and winnowed, after which only seeds remain. With proper storage, such seed retains its germination capacity for several years.
With immediate sowing after harvesting in July-August, you can proceed as follows: a freshly cut layer of berry pulp with seeds is placed on a thin sheet of paper, which is spread on a seed box filled with compost soil. To maintain uniform moisture, sheets of paper are covered with a thin layer of sand. Seeds usually germinate in about 14 days. After the appearance of the third leaf in the seedlings, they must be dived. Cold greenhouses with not too heavy, but rich in humus soil (a mixture of compost and sand) are suitable for this. It is advisable to dive seedlings with a feeding area of 5 × 7 cm.
At first, greenhouses are framed and shaded. After rooting, plants need good ventilation. To harden seedlings, frames are increasingly being removed. For the winter, the plants are left in greenhouses and next spring, after the start of growth, they are already well developed for sale. To prevent freezing of seedlings, greenhouses are again covered with frames for the winter.
Dried and peeled seeds can also be sown in spring (April) in portable seedling boxes or greenhouses. In this case, a one-time pick is also recommended. By August, the plants are sufficiently developed for planting in a permanent place.
It should be noted that seed propagation is used in cases with earthworm varieties:
- not giving a mustache (beardless varieties);
- small-fruited varieties;
- for breeding purposes;
- for decorative forms.
At the same time, it should be noted that during seed propagation, completely equal plants often grow, that is, plants that do not repeat all the qualities of the parent form.
Reference by topic: Zemklunika variety Kupchikha: photo and cultivation, reviews of gardeners
CARE OF YOUNG PLANTATIONS AND FOR A FRUIT-BEARING PLANTATION OF zemkluniki
One of the main conditions for the survival of seedlings is the maintenance of high soil moisture. The first watering is carried out immediately after planting. It has been established that a 30 mm water layer penetrates the soil to a depth of 25-30 cm. Therefore, the irrigation rate after planting should be within 25-30 l/sq. m.
When sprinkling, the inclusion should be of such duration as to provide humidity above the field capacity, i.e. when squeezed in the hand, water emerges from the soil. During the period of mustache formation, the removal of excess mustaches or their layout is carried out to fill in empty spaces-lunges. Weak mustaches are removed, stronger ones, if there is a need for rooting, laid out in free places and pinned. Usually the first two to three weeks are watered once or twice a week. In the future, after engraftment, the number of waterings is reduced to two per month. The number of waterings and their frequency depend on the growing area. Even in an area with heavy rainfall, an irrigation system is provided.
Care for the aisles is started after the plants have taken root, 10-15 days after planting. With the help of a chopper and other garden tools, weeds are destroyed and the soil is loosened, trying not to damage the young, tender root system of plants. As a rule, weeding is carried out after the next watering. Loosening the crust on the soil surface destroys the capillaries and reduces the evaporation of moisture. In the first year after planting, if the soil was well fertilized before that, additional fertilizing is not required. Caring for a fruit-bearing plantation includes loosening the soil, removing weeds and old leaves, and later - mustaches, mulching, watering, top dressing.
In early spring, as soon as the weather allows for field work, dried and diseased leaves and unrooted mustaches are removed from earthworms. Work is carried out in small areas manually with a broom or plastic rake, in large areas - with tractor brushes. Frequent loosening of the soil leads to a violation of its structure, so they try to minimize their number by carrying out one or two loosening before flowering and one after harvesting. To get rid of weeds and retain moisture, the soil surface is mulched, and weeds are destroyed by mowing or using herbicides.
Mulching is carried out with straw, sawdust, peat, needles, chopped bark of coniferous trees before flowering, and mulching with straw can be carried out at the end of flowering. Mulch is poured with a layer of 3-4 cm. Straw dries fairly quickly, which prevents the rapid spread of fungal diseases. Being embedded in the soil, it is quickly decomposed by microorganisms. When organic mulching materials decompose, a large amount of nitrogen will be required, therefore, when straw, sawdust, etc. are incorporated into the soil. it is necessary to take care of the additional application of nitrogen fertilizers. A small amount of weeds in the aisles and next to the strawberry plants can be removed manually.
If there are a lot of weeds, they are mowed with the help of special machines aggregated with light wheeled tractors, and in small areas they use a mower with a fishing line. The cut grass can serve as mulch. There is also a chemical way to kill weeds. To do this, there is a large range of pre-emergence and post-emergence herbicides, the number of which is replenished every year. However, excessive use of herbicides has negative consequences - it leads to the death of earthworms, which have a beneficial effect on soil structure, and the activity of microorganisms decreases.
It should be noted a few points that you need to pay attention to when growing a dredger:
1. Planting this berry is best in sunny places, despite the ability to tolerate light shading - there it will feel better, giving larger and tastier berries.
2. Zemklunika is characterized by a good yield - from one bush you can get up to 300 g of berries. Due to the high yield of zem-flowers, it is necessary to feed them well during the growing season, plant them at a distance of 30 cm (+5 cm) from each other.
3. Culture is more unpretentious to external conditions than garden strawberries.
4. The taste and aroma of wild strawberry is its most striking advantage, thanks to which it surely wins the love of everyone who tries it.
5. The berries remaining on the bush do not rot, they just dry out like raisins. That is, when growing it, you can not worry about timely cleaning. Dried fruits are plucked along with flower stalks and added to tea or eaten dried, and dried ones are stored as dried fruits for use in the cold season.
6. Non-boiling fruits allow you to get a beautiful and tasty jam, which can not only be served with tea or milk, but also used to decorate cakes, pastries and ice cream.
The earthen bed is highly aesthetic, has beautiful bushes that can become a real decoration of the site, especially during flowering and fruit ripening.
DISEASES AND PESTS OF EARTHCLING
Given the fact that earthworms are resistant to powdery mildew and gray rot, as well as strawberry mites, we will consider other diseases and other pests of earthcloths.
White spotting appears on leaves, petioles, peduncles and stalks. Small, 1-2 mm in diameter, round brown spots appear on the leaves. Later, they become somewhat angular, their center turns white, and a purple border remains on the verge of healthy and affected tissue.
In dry weather, the affected tissue falls out and the leaves become full of holes. The most massive distribution of white spotting is observed in the first half of summer. On petioles, peduncles, mustache spots are brown, elongated. Later, the spots lighten in the center, and their edges darken.
It is necessary to destroy diseased leaves and mustaches, and in the spring not only dry, but also affected living leaves are removed and burned. Before flowering and after harvesting, treat plantings with 1% Bordeaux liquid or Topaz 10% a.e. (2 ml per 7 liters of water). Avoid crowded landings. Instead of Topaz, you can use biological preparations Gaupsin, Aktofit, Zircon for processing. Phytosporin.
Brown spotting is one of the main diseases of earthworms, which develops in the second half of summer. Brown spot affects leaves, less often petioles and whiskers. On leaves, the disease causes characteristic irregular, angular, mostly vein-limited, large spots. At first they are dark purple, then, as the affected tissue dies, they turn brown. The purple color of the affected part of the plant is a specific external sign of this disease.
The same as with white spotting.
Unfortunately, earthworms are affected by mycoplasma and viral diseases, which manifest themselves in the form of withering of the entire bush or the appearance of yellow-green flowers. Plants become dwarfed, often curled at the top. Leaves on short petioles become small and take an irregular shape. The sucking insects carry the disease from one plant to another and can infect an entire plantation in one season.
Chemical or biological means of combating these diseases do not yet exist, so diseased plants should be immediately dug up along with the roots and burned. Excavated plants should not be composted. Seedlings of earthworms should not be transplanted in place of dug out plants, it is better to plant marigolds or any other flowers in these holes for 3-4 years.
Raspberry-strawberry weevil - a grayish-black beetle 2-3 mm long, damages young leaves, pedicels, buds. During the period of budding and flowering on the bushes of earthworms, you can find flower stalks with pedicels, devoid of buds, or with buds hanging on a thin film. The beetle causes the greatest harm to early varieties, leaving the soil after wintering and eating up the pedicels on the first buds, which give the largest berries. In these buds, the female beetle lays one egg at a time.
The hatched larvae feed on the contents of the buds, and here they pupate. The period of development of the larva is 20-25 days. The new generation of beetles feed on young leaves, gnawing narrow holes in them. They hibernate under lumps of earth at a depth of 1-1 cm or under plant debris, or go into the soil directly under the bushes of earthworms, as soon as the soil temperature in the surface layer drops to 5 C. Therefore, it is necessary to fight the weevil in time.
Landings of earthworms must be processed three times. The first time, when the buds had not yet begun to separate on the zemklunik. Then, when the raspberry buds began to separate. At this very time, it is necessary to spray the plantings of earthcloths, raspberries and again earthcloths with a solution of one of the preparations: Fitoverm or Iskra-Bio. Since these are not chemical, but biological preparations derived from soil microorganisms, they are environmentally friendly. Sprayed berries can be eaten 48 hours after treatment.
The strawberry leaf beetle is a yellow-brown beetle 3-4 mm long. Feeding on leaves, it gnaws through a hole or winding passages. Before flowering, the female lays eggs on the underside of the leaves or on the petioles. After 10-15 days, larvae hatch and also feed on leaves. Leaves with severe damage dry out, and the berries remain underdeveloped. The beetle hibernates under plant debris. The control measures are the same as against the weevil.
Stem and strawberry nematodes. Nematodes are small (no more than 1 mm), filamentous, completely transparent worm, so it is not visible to the naked eye. There are many types of nematodes. Zemklunika is inhabited by two species: stem and strawberry nematodes. Nematodes feed on sap and plant tissue. The stem nematode inhabits the leaves along with petioles and peduncles. Leaf blades are bent, petioles are shortened, thickenings appear on them. Plants become dwarf and die in 2-3 years. Mustaches should not be taken from plants infected with a nematode, since they are also infected with a pest. Strawberry nematode, as a rule, inhabits buds, flowers, berries, causing their deformation. Most often it appears on the berries of the second and third collections. The berries ripened on such bushes are twisted and completely tasteless.
The rosettes formed on such a plant are also affected by the nematode, and therefore new planting material should not be taken from infected bushes. In spring in May - early June and in autumn, in September, it is imperative to check the bushes for infection with a nematode, since damage is especially visible at this time. In years with high humidity, nematodes disperse especially quickly. If a bush inhabited by this pest is found, it must be dug up along with the roots and not only it, but also two bushes on both sides of it and burn everything. It is possible to return earthworms to their old place not earlier than in 2-3 years. If there are quite a lot of bushes inhabited by the nematode, then it is better to liquidate the entire plantation and lay a new one by buying seedlings in the nursery. You cannot use sockets from your plantation. It is best to plant vegetable crops on the vacant bed. Next year in the spring, the entire garden should be sown with marigolds. Then dig them up together with the soil at the end of summer, before planting earthworms.
It is usually recommended to scare away the weevil by planting garlic between the rows of earthworms (but garlic can contribute to the resettlement of the nematode), so if you plant garlic among earthworms, then after the spring frosts have passed, you need to plant marigolds, alternating them with garlic. It is also recommended to rinse the seedlings with water (especially the root system) before planting the earthworms so that there is no soil left, then immerse the clean seedlings in a solution of common salt (5 tablespoons per 5 liters of water) for 15 minutes. After that, the seedlings are rinsed with water and planted. Seedlings can be disinfected in hot water (45-47'C) for 15 minutes, then rinsed with cold water and planted. Sowing calendula around earthworms also repels nematodes.
The penny slobber is also a fairly common pest of earthworms. Most often, the penny sucks the juice from the heart. It is clearly visible - foam appears around the center of the earthen bush. This pennitsa, protecting its delicate outer cover from the sun's rays, releases saliva around itself. You can simply go around the site, collect and crush the penny. The pest is quite large and is clearly visible from saliva.
You can fight with pennitsa by pouring hot water (65-70C) over strawberry bushes with the addition of potassium permanganate until a bright pink solution is obtained in the evening. Young bushes of zemklunika tolerate temperatures no higher than 45C without damage to themselves.
Spider mite - transparent, very small, not visible to the naked eye. It is located on the underside of the leaf and sucks the juice out of it.
This greatly weakens the zemklunika, and it literally "bores". Leaves shrink. With a large colonization of the tick, they acquire an oily sheen, and then turn yellow and die. This tick is easiest to deal with with hot water, as well as with a penny. You can also use colloidal sulfur or chemicals against ticks Alollo, Neoron. They are poisonous and can be used only after the end of fruiting. Biological universal drug Fitoverm can be used at any time.
Given the above diseases and pests of earthworms, in the absence of industrial plantings in a small vicinity, the conclusion suggests itself: it is necessary to be very careful when purchasing planting material in licensed nurseries (the so-called improved planting material). And do not be lazy to process it before planting, as many diseases and pests appear on the plot with planting material.
Reference by topic: Growing zemlukniki - planting and care (Moscow region)
PENELOPE - interspecific or strawberry-strawberry hybrid. Plants of a variety of medium height, compact bush, densely leafy. Leaves of medium size, green, strongly pubescent, slightly shiny. Peduncles long, thick, slightly inclined, densely pubescent with erect hairs. On one bush grows 18-25 peduncles. inflorescences
many-flowered, on a bush from 120 to 250 flowers, located at the level and above the level of leaves. Flowers of medium size, bisexual, stamens long, thin. Berries of the first order of medium size, maximum weight up to 21 g, oval-conical shape, with a neck, pink-red, with a purple hue. The average weight of berries of the next orders is 7-8 g.
Achenes numerous, yellow, superficially located. The flesh is white-pink, tender, very sweet, with a nutmeg aroma. Plants of medium early maturity, winter-hardy, resistant to powdery mildew and gray mold of berries. The variety is distinguished by the friendly ripening of berries, up to 65% of the crop ripens in 9-10 days. Harvest of berries from a bush is from 200 to 250 g. Berries have high dessert properties, they are also suitable for making high quality jam.
RAISA is an interspecific or strawberry-strawberry hybrid. The plants of the variety are tall, powerful, the bush is slightly sprawling, densely leafy. The leaves are large, rough, wavy, green, slightly shiny, strongly ribbed and wrinkled. Peduncles long, thick, erect, densely pubescent. 14-27 peduncles grow on a bush. Inflorescences are many-flowered, 130-300 flowers per bush. They are located above the level and at the level of the leaves. The flowers are large, bisexual, the stamens are long, the anthers are bright yellow. Pedicels long, thick. Berries of the first order are large, without a neck. The average weight of berries of subsequent orders is within 8-10 g. Coloring with a purple tint. Achenes numerous, yellowish, slightly submerged. The flesh is pink-red, medium density, with a nutmeg aroma. Berries for dessert and technological purposes.
A variety of medium ripening, winter-hardy, resistant to powdery mildew and gray mold of berries. Harvest of berries from a bush is 250-350 g. The variety is distinguished by the friendly ripening of berries, within 7 days it ripens up to 75% of the crop.
HOPE ZAGORIA - a variety of medium early ripening. The plants of the variety are tall, powerful, the bush is compact, upright, densely leafy. The leaves are of medium size, rough, thick, green, dull, with dense pubescence, strongly ribbed, wrinkled, with a noticeable reticulation and darker coloration along the veins. Peduncles are long, thick, strongly pubescent, erect, do not lodge when the berries are fully ripe. On one bush grows 16-20 peduncles. The inflorescences are spreading, located above the level of the leaves. There can be 170-200 flowers on a bush. The flowers are large, bisexual, the stamens are long, with bright yellow anthers. Pedicels long, thick. The maximum weight of a berry of the first order is up to 28 g. The berries are round-conical in shape with a small neck. The color of the surface of the berry is dark red with a purple tint, dull. Achenes are red-yellow, numerous, slightly submerged. On one peduncle, as a rule, there are 3-4 simultaneously ripening berries. The pulp is dark red, dense, but not juicy, sweet taste with nutmeg aroma. Plants are characterized by friendly ripening of berries, up to 70% of the crop is ready for harvest in the first two harvests, the entire crop is harvested within 10 days. The variety is winter-hardy, resistant to powdery mildew and gray rot of berries. The harvest of berries from a bush is from 250 to 450 g.
KUPCHIHA is considered a relatively new variety of earthworms. which was introduced in the second half of the 80s. The fruits have an elongated cylindrical shape. Outwardly, they look like a little dried up, but the variety of these berries tastes very sweet and juicy. The yield of this variety is up to 300 g per bush, although the indicated yield cannot be called high. However, this is more than offset by a good presentation and large (12-20 g) berries. Additional advantages are resistance to gray mold and powdery mildew.
DAR - a variety of earthworms is not very common. The yield is from 250 to 350 g per bush, with a berry weight of 10-15 g. It feels great in conditions of high humidity and with a small amount of sunlight, therefore it is popular with summer residents.
STUDENTSKY - a hybrid of strawberries and strawberries was obtained by Russian breeders. Differs in an extended period of fruiting, small, fragrant and amazingly sweet berries. The fruits have a traditional elongated shape, the culture is immune to frost, rot, fungus and strawberry mites. Yield - 300 g per bush, ripening period - the second half of July. Usage formation is lower than that of other varieties of earthworms.
DIANA - probably the most unusual variety. The bushes are tall, and the berries are oval, their mass can reach
20-25 g. It has excellent taste, which makes it an indispensable product for making preserves and jams. It bears fruit from late June to early August, which is the reason for its deservedly high popularity.
NAKHODKA is one of the most unpretentious varieties, the berry is not large in size, but at the same time it is very sweet with a pronounced strawberry taste. The shape of the fruits of the variety is very similar to strawberries and is cone-shaped. Fruit late June to mid July.
RAPORT - a tall and spreading variety, traditionally resistant to frost and sudden changes in temperature. Differs in abundant flowering and the same large number of fruits. The berries are red-brown in color, firm, juicy and fragrant. They stay on the stems for a long time. This variety needs timely care: watering and fertilizing. It ripens quite late - by the end of July.
Candied Nutmeg - this variety belongs to the middle early, the bushes are distinguished by powerful peduncles, behind which the leaves are practically invisible. The berries are very large and can reach a mass of 30 g, they are distinguished by a strawberry aroma with a characteristic acid. This variety is slightly susceptible to pests and diseases. It is valued for its aromatic nutmeg taste with the addition of a pleasant sour taste, high yield, 300-400 g per bush, high frost resistance and unpretentiousness. It perfectly tolerates long transportation and perfectly retains its presentation.
BIRYULEVSKAYA MUSKAT. The variety is characterized by medium-sized bushes with long, slightly inclined peduncles. Dark red berries with a purple tint are dense, elongated-conical, compressed on the sides, from 6 to 20 g in weight. Early maturing variety with very sweet berries. The harvest is stable - 250-300 g per bush.
FLORICA - the variety has creeping, densely leafy bushes with dark foliage, tall flower stalks. The berries are fragrant, dense, dark red with a purple hue, up to 3 cm in length. Repair grade.
KOKINSKAYA CHOICE. The bushes are powerful, the foliage is dark green. The variety with the largest fruits (up to 50 g), the berries are elongated, slightly flat, dark red. The pulp is dense, very tasty and fragrant with hints of pineapple. Fruiting is plentiful.
CHIT. A variety with a deceptive name, because the fruits are dense and rather large (up to 25 g). The berries are sweet and sour, the harvest from the second year is plentiful.
Reference by topic: Zemklunika “Merchant” - landing, care and my reviews
ZEMKLUNIKA KUPCHIHA - REVIEWS ABOUT THE VARIETY ON VIDEO
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