December - gardening and folk omens
- ✓ SNOW RETENTION IN DECEMBER
- ✓ WET SNOW IS A DANGER TO THE GARDEN
- ✓ SO THE ROOTS DO NOT FROZEN
- ✓ SEEDS NEED STRATIFICATION
- ✓ PREPARATION OF GARDEN EQUIPMENT
- ✓ DECEMBER IN THE GARDEN
- ✓ DECEMBER FOLK SIGNS FOR THE GARDEN
- ✓ DECEMBER IN THE GARDEN, ON THE PLOT, HOME AND IN THE FLOWER BOARD - TIPS OF GARDENERS
- ✓ IN DECEMBER SEVEN WEATHERS IN THE YARD - READERS' ADVICE GARDENERS
- ✓ WHAT TO DO IN THE GARDEN, GARDEN AND FLOWER BOARD IN DECEMBER - VIDEO
DECEMBER: SNOW RETENTION AND WARMING, STRATIFICATION AND OTHER WORKS IN THE GARDEN
Compared to November weather, December is marked by a sharp drop in temperature. Natural dormancy sets in for garden plants, because when the soil cools below 0 ° C, even the root system stops its activity. At the beginning of winter, gardeners need to make every effort to protect fruit trees and berry crops from frost and rodents.
A cold and hungry time is coming for feathered helpers - natural enemies of garden pests. They need to be helped to survive these hardships by hanging feeders from plastic bottles, cardboard and plywood boxes, boxes and constantly providing them with food.
Fertilizers, means of protection against pests and diseases are being prepared for the new season. They acquire the missing inventory, bring the existing garden equipment and tools into a technically sound condition.
SNOW RETENTION IN DECEMBER
The establishment of snow cover during mild December frosts is a boon for garden plants, since the soil temperature is less dependent on temperature fluctuations in the air, and to a greater extent on the height and density of snow. The thicker the layer of snow and the looser it is, the warmer the plants are (snow does not conduct heat well). In this state, it well protects the soil from cooling. Therefore, after the first snowfalls, it cannot be trampled down.
After small snowfalls, try to cover the trunks and near-stem circles with snow, raking it in the aisles of the garden and areas of the garden where there are no winter plantings of vegetable crops. But at the same time, it must be borne in mind that it cannot be raked to the bare ground, especially in the aisles, so that frost does not damage the suction roots of plants, which are usually located along the outer edge of the crown projection.
Cover strawberries securely. To hold snow on its plantings, you can densely spread out branches of deciduous trees and shrubs that are inedible for rodents: maple, poplar, aspen, willow, birch, as well as currants, chokeberries, mountain ash, fruiting raspberry branches. Coniferous branches, reed stalks are suitable, in extreme cases - unchopped straw, which is laid out on frozen soil.
See also: Garden in winter - snow retention instead of trampling!
WET SNOW IS A DANGER TO THE GARDEN
Falling wet snow often accumulates in huge caps on the crowns of trees and shrubs. Under its weight, the branches are strongly bent, deformed and can break off. Therefore, after heavy snowfalls, shake off the snow carefully so as not to damage the branches.
December thaws are also dangerous, during which the upper layer of the snow cover thaws and compacts. The frosts that come after this form a solid ice crust - crust, which does not let the air inside, which is necessary for plants. It is destroyed with a pitchfork or other improvised tool.
SO THE ROOTS DO NOT FROZEN
In recent years, winters often come frosty and without snow. With a sharp cooling of the soil in the root layer below - 12-15 ° C, the roots of most garden plants, especially planted seedlings, young trees and shrubs, freeze slightly. To prevent this from happening, prepare rotted manure, dry sawdust, wood shavings, foliage of ornamental trees (best of all - oak), dry peat, needles or branches of coniferous trees in advance to mulch tree trunks. And before the onset of frost and in the absence of snow, cover the soil with a layer of at least 8-10 cm. Due to this, the soil cools down not abruptly, but gradually, which favorably affects the condition of the root system of plants.
SEEDS NEED STRATIFICATION
When horticultural crops are propagated by seeds, in most cases they germinate only after they have been in a certain period of time in conditions of high humidity and low positive temperature. This process is called stratification. When sown in autumn, freshly harvested seeds undergo natural stratification in the soil. If, for some reason, they were left for spring sowing, in order to get friendly seedlings, the seeds must be stratified under artificial conditions.
From mid-December, it is time to lay the seeds of thorns, cherry plums, plums, common cherries, apricots, sweet cherries, lemongrass, currants, hazels for stratification, since this period lasts 120-150 days.
This operation with seeds is best done in coarse sand, which is disinfected with Fitosporin-M, a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, or steamed for an hour. Seeds are also washed with a solution of potassium permanganate. After that, they are mixed with sand in a ratio of 1: 4-5, laid out in plastic bags or containers and placed in a refrigerator or basement. Every week, the seeds are examined, if necessary, the substrate is moistened, mixing and shaking for better air exchange.
PREPARATION OF GARDEN EQUIPMENT
It's time to get your gardening equipment in order. If this has not been done before, inspect it, clean it of dirt, dust and rust. After cleaning, check the sharpness of tools designed for pruning trees and shrubs. At garden knives, scissors, secateurs, loppers, the blades are first sharpened on coarse-grained bars or grinding wheels, and then they are corrected on fine-grained whetstones. Saws and hacksaws are sharpened with files.
The sharpness of the knives is checked first by touch, and then by cutting a free-hanging sheet of paper. The grafting knife is sharpened to razor sharpness. Its blade should cut off the wetted hair on the back of the hand. A well-honed pruner should cut paper like scissors.
For garden saws and hacksaws, in addition to sharpness, a fairly wide set of teeth is required, which should exceed the thickness of the hacksaw blade by 2-3 times. They are bred with a special wiring, strengthening the canvas in a vice.
After sharpening, lubricate the tools with machine oil and store in a dry place until work is started.
DECEMBER IN THE GARDEN
In December, gardeners sum up the past summer season. Comparing the yield and taste qualities of the sown varieties and hybrids, they decide which crops and in what area should be sown next year. Make a plan for the placement of crops on the site in such a way as to observe the fruit change.
If in the autumn period, for some reason, phosphorus, potash fertilizers, lime materials and organic matter were not applied to certain areas, then they are marked in the plan for this work to be done in the spring.
Knowing the areas of planting crops, already during this period, many begin to stock up on nutrient soils, the necessary seeds, mineral fertilizers, growth stimulants and regulators, plant protection products from pests and diseases. Acquire the missing inventory, covering material, film.
DECEMBER FOLK SIGNS FOR THE GARDEN
If it is cold on the Introduction (December 4), then the winter will be frosty and snowy.
In December, the snow lies close to the fence - the year will be lean, but if there is a gap between the fence and the snow - wait for a good harvest.
Hoarfrost on Nikola (December 19) - to the harvest. How much winter Nikola will give snow, how much spring Nikola will give herbs.
DECEMBER IN THE GARDEN, ON THE PLOT, HOME AND IN THE FLOWER BOARD - TIPS OF GARDENERS
DECEMBER IN THE GARDEN
Walk through your garden. After heavy snowfalls, without waiting for icing, shake off adhering clods of snow from the branches of ornamental shrubs.
The branches of young coniferous trees often break under the weight of wet and sticky snow. To help the plants, tie their crown with a rope or net. But do not overdo it and do not tie the conifers too tight so that the plants do not prop up during the thaw.
Build supports for creeping forms of juniper, pine, spruce. This will help protect the shoots adjacent to the ground from damping out and save the branches from breaking off during snowfalls.
If there is insufficient snow cover, collect snow outside the site and throw it to roses, peonies, and bulbs covered for the winter.
If there are no severe frosts, on a sunny fine day, you can continue trimming hedges and ornamental shrubs.
In regions with a warm, mild climate, tulip and daffodil bulbs purchased at a sale can be planted directly in the snow. For example, in the event that you could not resist and purchased them at a markdown. But planting bulbs under the snow is possible only if the ground is not frozen (ice crust is allowed). Do not trample the soil at the planting site, so as not to contribute to the rapid freezing of the soil as a result of compaction.
And in order for the bulbs to endure this procedure as easily as possible, help them adapt by holding a few days or a couple of weeks before planting, if circumstances permit, in the cold (basement or refrigerator).
In December, in the absence of frost, if you did not have time to do this in the fall, you can still whitewash the trunks of ornamental trees. This will protect them from frost cracks, sunburn, and also destroy wintering insects that have climbed into the cracks in the bark.
IN THE HOUSE
The main task of the grower in the cold season is to ensure a comfortable wintering of plants.
Keep heat-loving plants (tropical species) at a temperature of 1 ° C. Avoid drafts, insulate windows. Plants requiring cool conditions (citrus fruits, some types of palms, bougainvillea) need a temperature of 25°C. And cold-resistant ones (figs, rosemary, myrtle) will feel comfortable even at 1216 ° C. But the temperature should never fall below 38°C.
Drought-resistant (succulents) and other plants kept in cool conditions do not need abundant and frequent watering, it is enough to water them lightly 1-2 times a month. Moisture-loving water moderately 1-2 times a week after drying the top layer of soil.
Proceed to the stratification of seeds that need to be tested by cold (hellobead, delphinium, ash tree, peony, etc.).
Check the condition of the bulbs of gladioli, montbrecia, cannes, dahlias. If you notice spots, wounds on the planting material, cut them out with a sharp knife, and disinfect the cuts, cover with brilliant green or powder with ash.
See how the large-leaved hydrangea stored in the basement feels. If her kidneys began to swell prematurely, it means that the temperature in the basement has risen (regularly monitor the temperature indicators). If your hydrangea woke up, don't worry, it won't die. But in this case, she needs to provide additional illumination and watering.
Check the condition of the mother bushes of chrysanthemums. Store them in a cool place until mid-January at 35°C above zero. At higher temperatures, chrysanthemums will continue to vegetate and dwindle in low light conditions. If the temperature in winter is above 15C, subsequently the process of bud formation will be disrupted in plants.
Do not overmoisten the soil to eliminate excessive dampness. The soil in the pots should be slightly damp.
Don't forget the seeds too. The key to successful storage of seeds in winter is the following rule: the lower the humidity and air temperature in the room, the longer the seeds retain their germination. The optimum storage temperature for seeds is 510°C, humidity is not more than 50%. As a rule, at temperatures above 20 ° C, as well as near heating devices, the seeds quickly dry out, age, and their shelf life decreases. Sharp changes in temperature and humidity also negatively affect the quality of seeds.
Sow eustoma (or lisianthus) on seedlings. Since it develops very slowly, building up the root system for a long time, sowing is done as early as possible (December - January) into a sterile substrate. Good results are obtained by growing eustoma in peat tablets. Seeds are sown superficially, covered with a film and sent for germination in a warm place (2 ... 23 ° C). Shoots appear, as a rule, in 10-12 days.
Sow for seedlings and viola if you want to get flowering bushes by May - June. Viola is a cold-resistant plant, so it is advisable to grow seedlings at a temperature not higher than 18 ... 20 ° C. Higher temperatures are often the cause of failure to bookmark flower buds.
If you want to grow seedlings strong and healthy, take care of purchasing a fitolamp. Without an additional source of light, seedlings will stretch out in search of light, bending towards its source, and, as a result, lag behind in development. To date, the horticultural market has the widest range of phytolamps: sodium gas discharge, metal halide, mercury gas discharge, fluorescent, LED. Choose the one you need.
By the New Year, you can decorate the room with araucaria (indoor Christmas tree) or poinsettia.
To make the araucaria feel comfortable, do not place it near heating appliances and do not allow the soil to dry out, it should always be slightly damp. From heat and low humidity, araucaria can turn yellow and fall off the needles, so spray the plant daily. You can illuminate the araucaria with an LED lamp for 4-6 hours a day, fixing it on top so that the lighting is uniform.
In order for the poinsettia to please you with its bright appearance, try to create the necessary conditions for it: place it in a bright place, but protected from direct sunlight. The temperature should be 2 ... 24 ° C, humidity - about 70%. In order not to provoke leaf fall in the plant, avoid drafts, do not place it near heating appliances and do not allow the soil to dry out. Water the poinsettia with warm, filtered water.
© Author: Yulia Kupina, experienced florist Photo by the author
IN DECEMBER SEVEN WEATHERS IN THE YARD - READERS' ADVICE GARDENERS
In the last month of the year, many gardeners give themselves a rest.
But our readers continue to work even in winter.
Here is what they write. Read! Perhaps remember some important, previously forgotten business.
STILL CAN BE SUCCESSFUL
With the onset of winter, however, the hassle diminished, but if something was not done in late autumn, in early December you can still catch up.
The transition to a state of rest is a very crucial period for garden plants, and the degree of frost depends on the host.
zootolerance of fruit and berry crops. So, if you harvest late, then the plants will go into hibernation later, not having time to prepare for wintering. On the eve of wintering, it is important not to overdo it with the introduction of organic matter and nitrogen fertilizers, otherwise you can extend the vegetation of plants, which will significantly reduce their frost resistance.
In the first days of the month, if the frost is not more than 10 °, I complete the sanitary pruning of pome trees (it is better to cut stone fruits in spring). Cutting out the shoots, I carefully examine the bare crowns for wintering harmful insects: hawthorn, gypsy moth egg-laying, nests from golden tail leaves.
During this period, it is not too late to cut cuttings for grafting trees: I cut them off from the south side of the crown and then store them in a cool place, placing them in a container with sand.
I really like to drink tea with viburnum in winter. I tie the red berries collected before the start of winter into bundles of several tassels and hang them under the roof of the porch. Kalina is not afraid of frost, on the contrary, bitterness leaves her, she only becomes sweeter.
© Author: V. FROLOV Belgorod Region
WINTER WILL NOT BE MISSING
I am an amateur gardener, and in order not to sit idle in the winter, it is enough for me to build a mini-garden on the windowsill. This requires additional lighting and humidification during the operation of central heating batteries.
On cold winter evenings, it is so nice to warm up with fragrant tea! If there are no dried herbs in stock, you can sow unpretentious mint, lemon balm and thyme on the windowsill. Or dig up layering in the garden and transplant into boxes. I also grow my favorite rosemary in pots. I use it for more than just cooking. He, like fragrant herbs for tea, fills the whole house with a wonderful aroma, and also repels moths, you don’t even need to buy various sachets for cabinets.
In December, I am already collecting wood ash, egg shells, onion peel and bird droppings for the next season. To prepare high-quality soil for spring seedlings, I bring the ground from frost to heat, wait until weed shoots appear, then take the soil back to frost so that all shoots die. I do this several times so that the low temperature frees the earth not only from weeds, but also from pests and pathogens.
During the New Year holidays, I water the live Christmas tree every day with a small amount of water at room temperature to prevent the needles from falling off quickly. If we have a live Christmas tree in a container, it is much more comfortable in a cool and bright place with mandatory periodic soil moisture, then in the spring it will be possible to transfer it to the garden.
© Author: L. KOROBEINKOVA Kamchatka Territory
THERE IS WORK IN THE GARDEN AND THE STORAGE IN DECEMBER
Thaws in December are replaced by a sharp cooling, there is a lot of snow, then it is not at all. But Russian peasants called snow their wealth: "Snow in the fields - grain in the bins." It happens that in December there is still no snow, and the frosts are already pressing, then I cover the young plantings with sawdust, spruce branches or dry foliage.
If the snow has fallen, but it is not enough, the husband and his little son throw snow to the near-trunk circles of fruit trees and shrubs. If there is a lot of snow, but it melts, the peasants shake off wet snow from the branches of plants in order to avoid its re-freezing and breakage of the shoots. We tie up small and young trees immediately in early December to protect them from heavy snowfalls.
During the cleaning of garden paths, my assistants throw snow not only under fruit trees, but also on beds with garden strawberries. For greater retention of snow in the garden on the ground, we lay out healthy branches and flower stems remaining from pruning. We trample the snow around the trunks to destroy the mouse passages. With heavy snowfalls, we clean the roofs of greenhouses and shelter structures from snow in time.
In order to keep fruits in the basement longer, I remove diseased and damaged fruits in a timely manner. If the cellar is too dry, I put containers of water there to maintain optimal humidity. To reduce the ethylene content, I periodically ventilate the storage room by opening the vents during the day and closing them at night. The temperature in the basement should be slightly above zero, and the humidity should be about 90%.
© Author: M. IZOTOVA Kursk region
Reference by topic: December - work in the garden: hearth, berry, vegetable and flower
WHAT TO DO IN THE GARDEN, GARDEN AND FLOWER BOARD IN DECEMBER - VIDEO
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