Diseases and pests of seedlings: memo tables from a specialist
SEEDLING AND CARE: TABLES
The sowing campaign is gradually gaining momentum. To get healthy and strong plants in the future, you need to pay attention to them at the beginning of formation.
How to treat the soil and seeds before sowing? How to grow quality seedlings? Says the candidate of biological sciences from Yalta Lyudmila Uleiskaya.
PREVENTION OF DISEASES IN SEEDLINGS IS THE KEY TO SUCCESS
To prevent the occurrence of diseases and pests, the soil and seeds are treated with special means before sowing.
Against root rots (fusarium, rhizoctonia), tracheomycosis wilt, diseases of leaves and stems (powdery mildew, peronoslorosis, septoria, rust, late blight, alternariosis, cercosporosis, moniliosis, gray rot)
The prepared solution (1 tablet per 5 liters of water) is shed on the soil before sowing or planting on the day of treatment. Not subject to storage
Fights pathogens of fungal and bacterial infections (root rot, powdery mildew, rust, etc.)
Watering the soil - 1 tablet per 5 liters of water
Suppresses pathogens of fungal diseases (root and basal rot)
When sowing, 1 tablet per 300 ml of soil is added to the substrate, planting the preparation to a depth of at least 1 cm.
Protects against fungal and bacterial infections: powdery mildew, bacteriosis, rust, various rots, late blight, etc. A powerful immunostimulant that helps plants survive stress
For soaking seeds for 2 hours before sowing - 1,5 g (0,5 tsp) of powder per 1 ml of water. The soil is shed with the same solution before planting or sowing. Pasta (00 g) is dissolved in 200 tbsp. water at room temperature. To soak the seeds, take 2-2 drops of the solution per 4 tbsp. water
"Maxim", "Maxim Dachnik"
Against fungal diseases (gray and other types of rot, verticillium wilt, fusarium)
Use at the rate of 2 ml per 1 liter of water
SAVE THE MEMORIAL PICTURE
SEEDLING WITHOUT DISEASES
One of the most common seedling diseases is blackleg. In the early stages of growth (from germination to the appearance of 2-3 true leaves), the root neck turns black and rots. The stalk near the ground becomes thinner, the leaves wither. As a result, the plant dies.
To stop the spread of the disease, remove damaged specimens. If the "kids" grow in common trays, transplant healthy seedlings into separate pots with disinfected soil.
For prevention, treat undamaged plants with a fungicide (according to instructions).
MEANS AGAINST BLACK LEGS IN SEEDLINGS
Alirin-B, Gamair, Baktofit, Fitosporin-M, Mikosan
"Maxim" (may slow down the development of plants), "Vitaros", "Previkur Energy"
As soon as the first shoots appeared, we continue to closely monitor their development. At this stage, the main thing is to prevent disease damage and prevent the appearance of pests.
|PEST||SIGNS OF DAMAGE|
|whitefly||Leaves are discoloring. On the underside, secretions appear on which the soot fungus settles.|
|aphid||Leaf deformation, sticky discharge|
|Sciarids (midge, mushroom mosquito)||Small midges with transparent wings that gnaw on the roots. Seedlings are drooping|
|TRIPS||Extensive necrotic spots appear on the leaves. As a result, they quickly age and dry out.|
|spider mite||Leaves turn yellow, fall off. Sooty mushroom settles on sticky secretions|
SAVE THE MEMORIAL PICTURE
Seedlings can be destroyed not only by diseases, but also by harmful insects, especially if there are indoor flowers in the house.
FOR THE NOTICE
The Onus bug and the Neoseiulus mite are effective against thrips in greenhouses. Containers with insects can be placed at the same time. Of the preparations, insecticides have also proven themselves well: from the class of peritroids - "Spark Double Effect", neonicotinoids - "Biotlin", "Commander", "Sonet +" and avermectins - "Vertimek".
|DRUG NAME||WHITEFLY||APHID||TRIPS||sciarids||SPIDER MITE|
|Aliot, Fufanon, Karbofos||+||+||+||+||+|
|"Bazudin", "Thunder-2", "Initiation"||—||—||—||+||—|
|"Spark Golden", "Confidor", Tanrek||+||+||+||—||—|
|Iskra Bio, Fitoverm||-||+||+||—||+|
IMPORTANT! All drugs are used strictly according to the instructions.
RULES FOR HEALTHY AND STRONG SEEDLINGS - ADVICE AND FEEDBACK
HEALTHY SEEDLING - MAIN RULES!
From healthy seedlings and the harvest is notable - a well-known fact. However, when growing it, punctures happen to everyone, and especially often with pepper and eggplant. Therefore, it is useful to remember what exactly is important for these plants from the first days, what their health depends on.
SECURITY FROM DAY ONE
Even before sowing seeds, the place where seedlings are grown must be protected from pests - windows and window sills must be treated. Many do not even suspect that spider mites and aphids can live in the crevices of plastic windows, which are just waiting for the moment when fresh greenery appears. It is also necessary to get rid of indoor flowers from pests using harmless biological products.
Pots for sowing, if seedlings grew in them, must be disinfected.
SO THAT THE EGPLANT DOES NOT FROZEN
Eggplant seedlings “freeze” when picking, do not take root well when the roots are injured. For him, only accurate transshipment into a larger volume of the pot is desirable without destroying the earthen coma. Seedlings should be watered 2-3 hours before picking. If you work "dry", the soil will crumble from the roots.
The optimum temperature for the germination of pepper and eggplant seeds is -26-28°C. Planted seeds should be placed closer to the battery, and to preserve soil moisture, cover the container with a film. After germination, the daytime temperature is maintained at 20-23°C, the night temperature is 18-20°C.
Seedlings under the age of two weeks are especially sensitive to coolness. At temperatures below 13°C, their growth stops.
The appearance of loops and the first cotyledons is a crucial moment. If the sowing containers are in the dark, then when shoots appear, the covering film is removed, and the boxes are exposed to light.
If the temperature and illumination are optimal, then the seedlings grow even faster than stated in the variety description. And the crop can be harvested in SO-S5 days after germination. If the seedlings are in a cool, dimly lit room, then the growth time can be extended up to 70 days.
Seedlings stretch if they receive too little light at high temperatures. To fix this, you need to lower the temperature, and hang fluorescent lamps above the plants.
FRUITS WILL BE LESS IF ... IF PEPPERS AND EGGLANTS ARE WATERED FREQUENTLY, LITTLE AND IN THE EVENINGS, THE GROWTH OF GREEN MASS OF PLANTS INCREASES TO DAMAGE THE FORMATION OF FLOWERS AND FRUITS.
WHAT TO DO WITH A BLACK LEG AT SEEDLINGS
Often, in young seedlings, the cotyledon leaves turn yellow and wither, the plant stem turns black at the soil level, and constrictions form on it. When the first symptoms of the disease appear, the soil is treated with a solution of potassium permanganate of a slightly pink color, and then watering the plants is stopped for several days.
AFTER WATERING - SPRAYING
Dry air is not suitable for pepper and eggplant, it must be moistened periodically. Spray seedlings not before watering, but always after. And without excess - drops of water should not remain on the leaves and stems, moisture provokes the development of fungal diseases.
If the soil is nutritious, you can do without top dressing. If poor soils were used, then the plants are fed: the first time 1-2 weeks after picking, the second - 7-10 days before planting.
You can plant seedlings with two true leaves. When transplanting, they are buried in a pot to the cotyledon leaves - this technique will allow you to grow strong plants with a branched root system.
In order for the plants to take root better after picking, they must be kept at a moderately warm temperature for 3-4 days: 20-22 ° C during the day and 14-15 ° C at night.
The first time after picking, the seedlings are shaded from direct sunlight, the watering regime is 1 time in 6 days.
In the spring, the sun beats down on the southern windows so hard that the seedlings “burn out”. In this case, lutrasil of the thinnest brand will help: if you pull it on the glass, it will absorb excess heat and at the same time let in enough sun.
If necessary, seedlings in the future once again roll over into larger pots.
WE WATER SKILLLY
It is important not to forget that the birthplace of peppers and eggplants is the subtropics, where it is always humid. But there is a difference in watering these crops - eggplants love water more than peppers, since their leaf surface is twice as large and they also evaporate moisture more. And the temperature regime for pepper and eggplant is the same.
After germination, seedlings are rarely watered - very wet soil can cause a dangerous disease - a black leg, which can ruin all plantings in a short time. Up to the development of two true leaves, it is advisable to water the seedlings between rows. And very carefully - a jet of water can damage delicate stems and leaves.
When the soil is waterlogged, the roots stop breathing.
After picking and transplanting, the seedlings are watered moderately so that the roots grow well not only in different directions, but also in depth.
Water for irrigation should settle for not one, but 2-3 days, so that chlorine and other compounds evaporate, and harmful suspensions go to the bottom.
Reference by topic: Growing seedlings - when and how to plant, seed and seeds from A to Z - part of 1 и Part 2
PESTS AND DISEASES OF SEEDLING ON VIDEO
ORDER QUALITY AND CHEAP SEEDS AND OTHER PRODUCTS FOR HOME AND COTTAGE. PRICES ARE BOTTLE. CHECKED! JUST LOOK FOR YOURSELF AND BE AMAZED. THERE ARE REVIEWS. GO >>>
Below other entries on the topic "Dacha and garden - with their own hands"
- Black patch of roses - how to fight
- Onion fly - how to get rid of? Means of struggle - folk and not very!
- Ring rot of potatoes (photo) symptoms and how to treat
- Human medicines - use for plants
- Terry currants - photo and treatment
- Five myths about late blight and the fight against it
- Bulb flowers diseases name, photo and description
- Phytophthora of potatoes (photos) - prevention and control: the advice of the SPECIALIST
- What to do if the seedlings are eaten by a wireworm (Tyumen region)
- Pests and diseases of strawberries in pictures and the fight against them
Subscribe to updates in our groups and share.
Let's be friends!
3 Review (s)
What to do, if…
ЛИСТЬЯ У РАССАДЫ СТАЛИ ФИОЛЕТОВЫМИ? Фиолетовый оттенок листьев – признак нехватки фосфора. Если рассаду поставили на холодный подоконник, не подложив под горшки утеплитель, то почва в емкостях переохлаждается, фосфор в холодном грунте делается недоступным для молодых растений, и они начинают голодать.
ЛИСТЬЯ ЖЕЛТЕЮТ И ОПАДАЮТ? У этого явления может быть несколько основных причин. Чаще всего – залив растений. Такое возможно при отсутствии дренажа и отверстий в посадочных емкостях. Из-за чего грунт в них закисает, и в результате у перца и баклажана происходит отмирание мелких всасывающих корешков. Растения на это реагируют пожелтением и отмиранием листьев.
Mushroom mosquitoes started up on indoor plants, and when seedlings were placed on the windowsill, after removing the flower pots, they were soon found on the seedlings. And even more, as it seemed to me, in quantity. How to get rid of uninvited guests?
Mushroom mosquitoes, or sciarid flies, really look like mosquitoes, only much smaller. Adult individuals do not cause harm to plants, but they can be carriers of pathogens. They live no more than 7 days, but during this time they manage to lay up to 300 eggs on the surface of moist soil or in the soil between the roots. A few days later, transparent larvae 8-10 mm long with a clearly visible intestine and a black head appear from the eggs. They feed on plant debris, but when there is a shortage of food, they eat the roots of plants and young shoots that are in the soil. By doing this, they cause irreparable harm to plants. A few days later, pupation occurs, and young flies soon appear.
Бороться с грибными комариками несложно. Главное – не допускать переувлажнения почвы. Личинки не любят сухой земли и быстро погибают на воздухе.
An infusion of garlic is quite effective, usually one medium head is enough. The teeth need to be cleaned, crushed in a garlic maker or grated on a fine grater, pour 2 glasses of water and leave for a day. Then dilute the infusion with water up to 3 liters and pour the resulting solution and sprinkle the plants 1-2 times.
O. NOSKOVA, agronomist