Cherry hybrids: cherry, cerapadus and cherry plum - description and reviews
CHERRY HYBRIDS - DESCRIPTION, PHOTO, LANDING AND CARE
Oh, this fragrant, sweet and sour cherry! Who refuses to enjoy juicy fruits?
And what pies and compotes are made with cherries! Breeders are also very fond of this culture. A huge number of varieties have been created for different regions of Russia. And also - a lot of interesting hybrids between cherries and other stone fruits. These hybrids can be grown where cherries or, for example, sweet cherries will not grow.
For example, there is a hybrid of cherry and plum, which is called cherry plum. It was brought out about 90 years ago in the USA by the breeder N. A. Ganzen, crossing the sand cherry with the Chinese plum. The first hybrids were not very successful - with medium-sized fruits (larger than cherries, but smaller than plums) and tasted so-so. However, the breeders did not give up, they continued to cross the already obtained hybrids with other plums and cherry plums. This is how modern plum-cherry hybrids (SVG) turned out with very beautiful and large fruits of excellent taste in the form of a plum, fruitful, early-growing, frost-resistant. The trees are low, easy to care for and can be planted even in a small garden.
Another great feature of plum-cherry hybrids is late flowering. Cherry plum blooms 2 weeks later than plums, as a result, it escapes from late spring frosts. Another positive quality is that green cuttings take root quickly, it is easy to propagate such a hybrid with them.
Cherry and plum hybrids also have disadvantages. This is not a very high yield, as well as the simultaneous ripening of fruits. Although for some, such a friendly maturation can be a plus. The main thing is to immediately harvest, because otherwise the fruits will quickly begin to deteriorate right on the branches.
Another disadvantage is the cross-pollination type of plum-cherry hybrids. In order for pollination to occur, we advise you to plant several different varieties or breeds on the site at the same time. It can be a sand cherry, but an ordinary cherry will not cross-pollinate with plum-cherry hybrids. But SVG can be used as rootstocks for both fruit and ornamental plums.
In the middle lane, cherry plum is a good fruit crop. It is winter-hardy, resistant to adverse growing conditions, almost does not get sick. Varieties with the most delicious fruits - Hiawatha, Beta, Manor, Sapa, Opata, Gem.
See also: Unusual hybrids for the garden derived by crossing
Hiawatha - medium-early hybrid with large (20 g) ovoid fruits, with dark purple skin and
pinkish, very juicy and sweet, with a barely noticeable sour pulp.
Beta is an early productive variety with large (up to 15 g) round-shaped fruits, with maroon skin, red juicy pulp with a sweet taste reminiscent of cherries, and a small stone.
Mainor - Canadian variety, natural semi-dwarf with fruits weighing up to 15-18 g with dark red pulp of sweet and sour taste, sometimes with subtle bitterness. Enters fruiting in the second year. The variety is self-fertile, a pollinator is needed (for example, Gem), winter-hardy, productive.
Opata - American mid-early variety with large (up to 20 g) rounded fruits, dark red with yellow flesh, juicy, sweet-fresh.
Sapa is an American mid-early variety that is productive and disease resistant. The fruits are medium, up to 10-15 g, round, red-brown, with yellowish juicy and sweet pulp, astringency is sometimes noticeable.
Gem - Russian variety with large (up to 20 g) yellow-green fruits, sweet and sour, juicy. The variety is winter-hardy, self-fertile and productive.
The most winter-hardy cherry plum varieties were bred by N. N. Tikhonov in Krasnoyarsk. This is Dessert Far Eastern, Utah, Novelty. These varieties grow well where there is a high and stable snow cover. However, in regions where thaws alternate with frosts, these varieties can succumb and also quickly come out of dormancy during the thaw period.
Dessert Far Eastern - with fruits of elongated irregular shape, burgundy-violet, large (15-20 g), with greenish juicy pulp of excellent sweet-sour taste. Gardeners even compare the taste of these fruits with the taste of the fruits of southern plums, arguing that Dessert Far Eastern is not inferior to them. An adult bush yields up to 20 kg per bush.
Variety Novinka has small (8-10 g) fruits, black-violet, with thin skin and a small stone, which is perfectly separated from the pulp. The bush is very fruitful, gives up to 25 kg of berries from the bush. The fruits can be eaten fresh, they are sweet with a noticeable sourness, but it is best to make jam or wine from them.
Reference by topic: Cerapadus (photo) cherry + bird cherry - cultivation and care
Cherry hybrids with bird cherryare probably known to everyone. They are also called cerapadus and padocerus - from the Latin names of cherry (Cerasus vulgaris) and bird cherry (Padus racemosa).
When the cherry is the mother plant, and the pollen is taken from the bird cherry, then such a hybrid is called cerapadus, and if vice versa, such a hybrid is called padocerus.
In cerapadus, the size of the fruits is the same as in ordinary cherries, only they are collected in a brush, like in bird cherry. The fruits of cerapadus usually taste bitter. But such hybrids are very winter-hardy.
Breeders continued crossing cerapadus and padocerus with cherries and they managed to develop varieties with tastier fruits. These are varieties Long-awaited, Meeting, Novella, Rusinka. Their fruits are collected in brushes of 3-4 pieces. The famous cherry variety Kharitonovskaya is also obtained on the basis of padocerus.
The main advantages of cerapadus and padocerus are high frost resistance and disease resistance. Recently, almost all cherries have been severely affected by coccomycosis and moniliosis. So, grafting cultivars to cerapadus can increase the resistance of varietal cherries to these diseases. But cerapadus and padocerus can be used not only as rootstocks, but simply to obtain fruits if there is extra space on the site for planting. Although such fruits are not very tasty, they make good jam, jam and juice. They can be added to other fruits in blanks. But the trees of cherry-bird cherry hybrids practically do not require any care and do not cause any problems. What is called, planted and forgotten.
See also: Duke (chereshnevishnia) and cherry - growing in the Vladimir region
The cherry is a close relative of the cherry. And it’s not for nothing that cherries are called “bird cherries” - birds adore the sweetest fruits.
Cherries have higher frost resistance and moderate crown growth, while sweet cherries, on the contrary, are less frost-resistant and have a large crown. But sweet cherries are more resistant to diseases than cherries, and their fruits are larger and tastier.
Of course, the breeders really wanted to cross cherries with cherries, as a result they got hybrids that are commonly called dukes or cherries, as well as cherries. Now many well-known and very good quality varieties of cherries are actually dukes, this is not always indicated in the description of the variety. The first cherry tree was bred by I. V. Michurin 130 years ago and was called the Beauty of the North.
Now a huge number of duks have been bred, and the selection continues. The dukes have a cherry aroma and the appearance of the fruit is also closer to cherries than cherries. However, the taste of the fruits of duks is sweeter than ordinary cherries. Therefore, if you need sweet-fruited cherries in the garden, plant duks. Just be sure to pay attention to the frost resistance of a particular variety, since in dukes it is often somewhat lower than in ordinary cherries. Dukes also have a very high yield and resistance to the main worst diseases of cherries - coccomycosis and moniliosis.
To get a good harvest from cherries, it is imperative to plant other varieties for pollination. Suitable self-fertile varieties of cherries (for example, Lyubskaya) or varieties of fairly frost-resistant cherries (for example, Iput).
As already mentioned, when choosing a duke, pay attention to the characteristics of a particular variety. Many dukes are sensitive to the alternation of thaws and frosts, they can go out of dormancy, as a result, the buds will die, and the shoots will freeze. The tree may survive, but the yield will be reduced or not at all.
We advise you to plant such dukes as the Beauty of the North, Miracle Cherry, Early Shpanka, Shimskaya Shpanka, Dwarf Shpanka, Large-fruited Shpanka in the middle lane and northwestern regions. In the Urals and in Western Siberia - Nurse, Zhukovskaya, Ivanovna, Spartan, Strong, Wonder Cherry. In the Far East - Nadezhda, In Memory of Vavilov, Zhukovskaya, Excellent Veniaminova, Fesanna.
Miracle cherry is widespread both in the southern regions of Russia and in the central ones.
Reference by topic: Dyuki in the Moscow region - cultivation and varieties
GARDENERS' REVIEWS AND OPINIONS
Opinions of gardeners about planting SVG diverge. Some scold them and believe that the taste is not good enough, closer to the turn, so it’s not worth planting. Better look for plums. Others plant plum-cherry hybrids and praise them. After all, SVG has no problems with pollination, the taste of fruits is good. And the bushes grow in a climate where plums and cherries die (for example, in Primorsky Krai with high humidity). SVG grow very quickly and bear fruit. Dukes have one feature that is important to remember.
They are self-fertile and require a pollinator. And more dukes cannot be pollinators for cherries and sweet cherries. That is, if you plant (for lack of space) one tree of each crop, then you will harvest only from the duke.
Remember: the Duke pollinates only the Duke, the cherry - the cherry and the Duke, the cherry - the cherry and the Duke. For cherries and sweet cherries, you need to plant your own pollinators.
© Author: E. ZHUKOVA, test gardener
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Below other entries on the topic "Dacha and garden - with their own hands"
- Cherry hybrids: cherry, cerapadus and cherry plum - description and reviews
- Treatment of felt cherries from moniliosis
- The best varieties of cherries - name and description (Penza region)
- Cultivation of cherries in the Moscow region - planting, varieties and care
- Fertilizing cherry bush - horticultural tips
- How to treat cherries from moniliasis and help the victims of frost trees (Voronezh)
- Care for a felted cherry
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2 Review (s)
We inherited a dacha with 25-30-year-old cherries. Height above the second floor. It bears fruit every year, we have enough harvest. We take care of her, but she is very overgrown, the lower branches are very thin, descend to the ground. We argue whether to cut it or not, we are afraid to lose it. If cut, how? And when - spring or autumn?
Уважаемая Надежда! Я всегда расстраиваюсь, что вокруг обрезки вишни существует столько домыслов. Одни считают, что обрезать вишни можно только в молодом возрасте, что они слишком чувствительны и не смогут совладать с ранами, откроется камедетечение, и, соответственно, дерево быстро погибнет после обрезки. Другие считают, что пока дерево цветет, его бессмысленно обрезать.
Вишню просто нельзя запускать, потому что сильная разовая обрезка приведет к росту волчков. Обрезать нужно постепенно, начинать с усыхающих и надломленных веток, а также веток, лишенных разветвлений и приростов. Сильно склоняющиеся срезать на боковые ветки. При обрезке важно знать, что нельзя оставлять пеньки. В противном случае не исключено камедетечение, которое будет причиной ослабления и подмерзания дерева. Срезы замазать садовым варом. Обрезать нужно весной, в конце марта еще не поздно.