EACH CABBAGE HAS ITS CARE
Cabbage is the latest vegetable crop. At the end of summer and beginning of autumn, middle and late varieties of cabbage are just gaining strength, so the plants need active care.
For white and red cabbage It is important to keep the heads from cracking. Most often, this happens to them when the time of filling the heads of cabbage coincides with strong changes in temperature and humidity, as well as prolonged rains in the fall.
If the weather is hot and dry at first, and then there is heavy rain, the cabbage leaves tend to absorb as much liquid as possible at once and, as a result, begin to grow quickly. But the growth rate of leaves is different. Tender, juicy young leaves located inside the head of cabbage develop much faster than the old and rough upper ones covering it outside. Therefore, the head, under the pressure of the growing internal leaf layers, is torn from the inside.
That the heads of cabbage did not crack, you need to try to maintain the humidity at the same level. Cabbage intended for long-term storage stops watering 3-4 weeks before harvesting the heads. If during this period moisture comes in in excess, small grooves are made to drain the water.
Quite an effective method - light shading of cabbage in the heat, for example, burlap (stretch an awning) or non-woven material (lay directly on the plants). At the same time, it is advisable to water it not at the root, but by sprinkling (from a watering can or hose) so that the whole plant is moist.
Such a simple technique as tearing the roots will help the heads ripen normally and become dense. To do this, grasp the stalk with your hands and turn it 50° in both directions or slightly lift it up. You can trim the roots on both sides of the plant with a shovel, deepening it 15-20 cm into the ground.
Modern cabbage breeding is aimed at creating varieties that are resistant to cracking. These include the following varieties and hybrids: Rusinovka, Belorusskaya 85, Amager 611, F1 Albatross, F1 Kolobok, F1 Krumont, F1 Marathon, F1 Ramanda, F1 Rinda, F1 Aggressor, F1 Adapter, F1 Pandion, F1 Megaton, F1 Storidor, F1 Galican, F1 Valentina. Of the red cabbages - F1 Benefit, Kalibos.
At the end of summer, many gardeners tear off the leaves of cabbage and leave almost bare heads of cabbage, explaining this by the fact that the lower leaves are close to the ground, they are attacked by slugs, butterflies lay eggs, and the plants are affected by vascular bacteriosis. By doing this, they obviously reduce the yield.
The size of the head of cabbage directly depends on the number of leaves in its rosette, therefore healthy foliage should not be cut off. It is especially undesirable to do this with late varieties in August - September. During this period, the weight of the cabbage head can increase by 100 g per day, and its rapid compaction occurs.
In addition, the covering leaves are covered with a waxy coating, which protects the plant from pests, diseases, frosts and mechanical damage. Through the resulting wounds, harmful organisms that cause diseases enter the cabbage. The lower leaves should be removed only after they have fulfilled all their functions and begin to turn yellow and wither. In the meantime, they are green - cut only if there is a delay in harvesting early and mid-early varieties, in order to protect the heads of cabbage from cracking.
Now is the time not to strip the cabbage, but to help it get stronger. It is good to pollinate plants weekly with ash from wet leaves (preferably from dew), not forgetting about the soil. This will both feed and combat pests that do not sleep, despite the cool weather.
Phosphorus-potassium fertilizers will improve the taste and increase the shelf life of cabbage (2-2,5 tablespoons per 10 liters of water), carried out 2-3 weeks before harvesting. The leaves will become denser and the cell walls will be thicker, which will protect the cabbage from rot. You can carry out dry fertilizing and use infusions.
At the end of August, late varieties of red and white cabbage respond well to foliar feeding with magnesium sulfate (15 g per bucket of water). This treatment will help varieties intended for storage to survive the winter without problems.
Universal composition of fertilizer for filling large heads of cabbage for any type of cabbage: for 10 liters of water -1 teaspoon of magnesium, 1 teaspoon of boron (dissolve in hot water) and 1 tbsp. spoon of Crystal (green).
Like white cabbage, the rosette of Chinese cabbage is formed from green leaves, and the head is formed from white leaves; the upper leaves of the head of cabbage are often green in the same way as the rosette leaves. This gives them a grassy taste. Such leaves, of course, can be removed, but this will reduce the weight of the head of cabbage, and hence the yield. To avoid losses, during harvesting, only those leaves that do not form a head of cabbage are cut off, then the cabbage is placed in a dark, cool place - in the refrigerator or cellar. After 10-12 days, the chlorophyll will be destroyed and all the covering leaves of the heads of cabbage will acquire a whitish color and a pleasant taste.
У cauliflower and broccoli August is the time for active formation of heads. To avoid excess nitrates, they are no longer fed during this period. But if necessary, water regularly.
Cauliflower heads that are not covered with leaves often turn yellow. To prevent this from happening, at the beginning of the harvest, you need to break a few leaves and cover the heads with them from the sun's rays, and after the inflorescences increase, tie the covering leaves above them.
After the central head of the broccoli is cut off, the plants need to be fed with complete mineral fertilizer (azofoska, nitrophoska. Fertika universal-2) at the rate of 20 g per 1 sq.m. Over the next two to three weeks, fertilizing will promote intensive growth of side shoots.
У kohlrabi at the end of summer - the final stage of formation of the stem fruit. In early-ripening and mid-ripening varieties, it is important not to miss the moment when its diameter reaches 7-8 cm and weighs 100 g. After this, the stem fruit becomes very coarse both outside and inside.
In contrast, late-ripening varieties often reach a weight of 500-600 g and a diameter of 10 cm. To prevent them from becoming coarse and fibrous, the soil should not be allowed to dry out. It is also undesirable to over-water it - in this case, development will slow down.
It is not recommended to hill kohlrabi. If the stem fruit is covered with soil, it will stretch out and may take on a cylindrical shape.
To increase productivity late Brussels sprouts, at the very beginning of September (20-30 days before harvest) it is pinched, removing the growth point at the top. Due to the long growing season, Brussels sprouts need a large amount of nutrients, therefore, during the formation of heads of cabbage, it is recommended to feed them with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers once every 2 weeks (30 g of each per Yule of water, spending 1 liter of solution per plant).
Reference by topic: 12 types of cabbage: choosing what to sow - the pros and cons
SUBTRACTS OF GROWING DIFFERENT TYPES OF CABBAGE - VIDEO
© Author: Natalia Solonovich, agronomist Photo by the author
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