- ✓ CALENDAR OF WORK
- ✓ WE PICK FRUITS WITHOUT LOSSES
- ✓ PEOPLE APPLICATIONS
- ✓ GARDEN FEEDING IN OCTOBER
- ✓ DON'T BE LATE FOR BOARDING
- ✓ SANITARY WORK IN THE GARDEN IN MID AUTUMN
- ✓ PREVENTION OF GRAPES DISEASES
- ✓ CONCERNS OF A VEGETABLE GROVER IN SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER
- ✓ HARVESTING ROOTS AND POTATOES
- ✓ SOIL CARE
- ✓ FLOWER DIARY SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER
- ✓ WE DIVIDE AND REPLANT PERENNIALS
- ✓ PREPARING ROSES AND CHRYSANTHEMUMS FOR WINTER
- ✓ PLANTING CLEMATIS
- ✓ PLANTING TULIPS AND HILL GRUSES
- ✓ DIGGING GLADIOLUS
- ✓ CUTTING GRASSY PEONIES
- ✓ SO SEPTEMBER CHILDREN DON'T GET SICK
- ✓ FLOWERS IN THE HOUSE
- ✓ GARDEN WORK IN OCTOBER - VIDEO
WHAT TO DO IN THE GARDEN IN THE SECOND HALF OF SEPTEMBER AND THE FIRST OF OCTOBER?
In September, they continue to harvest fruit and berry crops, carry out a set of measures for the autumn care of fruit trees and berry bushes, and begin planting seedlings.
CALENDAR OF WORK
If fungal diseases have developed on the trees behind the lei, the plants are treated with a 6-8% solution of ferrous sulfate. Tree trunk circles are treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate.
Apple and pear trees affected by scab are treated with a 4% urea solution after leaf fall.
When the foliage on the trees begins to turn yellow, dig up the trunk circles to a depth of 10-20 cm. This will reduce the number of pests overwintering in the soil. Simultaneously with digging, humus or compost (5-7 kg/mg), superphosphate (30-40 g), and potassium nitrate (15-20 g) are added.
If the berry bushes were not pruned in September, then this should be done no later than the second half of October. All weak and old shoots are cut out from black currants. Old, twisted and low hanging branches are removed from gooseberries.
For the winter, raspberry bushes are tied into bunches and bent to the ground.
This is best done when night temperatures have not yet dropped below 10°C.
The beds are being prepared for winter sowing of dill, radishes, carrots and parsley. Make furrows 1-1 cm deep and store soil for planting seeds.
When frost sets in, horseradish is dug up. At this time, the plant accumulates the maximum amount of nutrients. The roots should be removed from the ground cleanly.
The film is removed from the greenhouses.
In greenhouses, plant debris is removed.
In October, tulips and hyacinths are planted. With the onset of frost in dry weather, acidanthera and montbretium corms, as well as canna rhizomes, are dug up. Tuberous begonia is dug up after frost.
The soil in flower beds is mulched with humus or wood chips. Cut off the stems and foliage of perennial herbaceous plants.
WE PICK FRUITS WITHOUT LOSSES
During the month, autumn and winter varieties of apples and pears, the main varieties of plums, chokeberry and red rowan, quince, mid-season grape varieties, and rose hips ripen. The second harvest of remontant raspberries is ripening.
Before harvesting, it is necessary to prepare boxes, packaging material, and storage space in advance. In order for the fruits to be stored well, they must be removed in a timely manner. Premature or late harvesting can negate all the labor spent on growing and harvesting them.
Fruits harvested ahead of time quickly wither and become flabby during storage.. When harvesting is late, the shelf life is sharply reduced. The pulp of overripe fruits of many varieties becomes mealy and turns brown during storage. In addition, the trees become depleted and do not survive winter well.
Harvesting of late-ripening varieties of apples and pears should be carried out during removable ripeness. In apples, it occurs when the seeds in the seed chambers turn brown and the fruits are easily separated from the fruit branches. Pears are picked hard when the seeds just begin to turn brown and the main color appears on the fruit.
- If September 1st is a clear day, then autumn will be warm.
- Spiders energetically weave webs - for frosty sunny weather.
- On Ivan the Baptist (September 11), the cranes went south - expect an early winter.
Fruits for storage are selected without mechanical damage, signs of disease or wormholes, sorted by size and placed in dense rows in prepared containers. Wooden storage boxes should have minimal gaps between the boards. It is advisable to place fruits of the same variety in one box and cover them with odorless material that allows air to pass through and does not absorb moisture (healthy and clean leaves of oak, maple, dry moss, shavings of deciduous trees). Straw cannot be transferred, as it can become moldy and give the fruit an unpleasant odor.
The garden is not watered before harvesting. Otherwise, the shelf life of the fruits decreases and the degree of damage to them by various diseases increases.
When harvesting apples and pears, it is important to preserve the stem and not wipe off the waxy coating from the skin. This improves their keeping quality. The fruits are picked in dry sunny weather after the dew has dried, first of all the well-colored ones, and after 2-3 days all the rest, located deep in the crown.
Fruits picked for long-term storage cannot be kept for a long time in the open air or under a canopy, but immediately. on the day of collection, it must be stored in a refrigerated cellar or other storage. The shorter this period of time, the better they will be stored. The optimal storage temperature is 0+3°C with an absolute air humidity of 90-95%.
During storage, apples strongly absorb foreign odors. It is better to store them in a separate room. In a common cellar where potatoes, vegetables, barrels of sauerkraut, pickles and tomatoes are stored, boxes of apples can be insulated by placing them in sleeves made of polyethylene film 100-120 microns thick.
You can often hear that We planted frost-resistant varieties of garden crops, but they froze or froze completely. But not everyone knows that the winter hardiness and frost resistance of trees and shrubs largely depend on the fertilizers applied. In the second half of summer and autumn, they cannot be fed with nitrogen fertilizers, since nitrogen provokes secondary growth of shoots that do not have time to lignify well and suffer greatly from frost. During this period in phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are applied to the soil around tree trunks. On poor soils - annually, on fertile soils - once every 2 years. Approximate doses are 20-30 g of superphosphate. 15-40 g of potassium chloride or 20-45 g of potassium salt.
Organic fertilizers are applied after the end of the growing season so as not to cause a new wave of growth of the ground mass. The frequency of application on sandy and sandy loam soils, poor in nutrients, is once every 2 years (5-8 kg/sq.m), and on fertile loamy soils – once every 3-4 years (4-6 kg/sq.m).
Acidic soils of tree trunk circles are limed every 3-4 years at the rate of 300-500 g of calcareous materials per 1 sq.m of tree trunk circle.
Pear trees place increased demands on potassium fertilizers. On potassium-poor soils, the dose of fertilizers is increased by about 20%.
DON'T BE LATE FOR BOARDING
В In September-October, seedlings of fruit trees and berry bushes begin to be planted. Everything needs to be planted 3-4 weeks before the soil freezes, so that the roots of the plants are overgrown with new fibrous roots and, well established, go into winter.
Carefully choose a place for planting, remembering that a tree or shrub will grow in the area allotted to it for many years. It’s bad if they find themselves in the shade of other trees or buildings. The branches will grow leggy, the angles of departure will be sharp, and as a result the crown will be fragile.
If the site has sandy or sandy loam soil, then planting holes for fruit trees are dug 1 times wider and deeper than on loam. This needs to be done in order to add more fertile soil with increased rates of humus or compost (5-1 buckets), as well as phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. If these soils are underlain by sands and light sandy loams, then clay is laid at the bottom in a layer of 3-10 cm. If the groundwater is close, holes are not dug, but planting is carried out on arranged ridges or hills.
When planting trees, the root collar and grafting site are not buried; they must be above the soil surface. When planting currants, raspberries, gooseberries and other shrub species, the neck is deepened by 5-7 cm.
Beginning of September - good time to propagate currants from woody cuttings. Strong, fully matured, healthy annual basal and lateral shoots from 2-4-year-old branches of the current year are suitable for cuttings. The leaves are removed from them along with the petioles and cuttings are cut 20-25 cm long with 5-6 buds, making the upper cut above the bud. The cuttings are planted obliquely, at an angle of 45°, leaving 1-2 buds above the ground surface. After planting, the soil around the cuttings is well compacted so that there are no voids, watered and mulched. The soil must be well moistened throughout the autumn period so that they take root before winter.
SANITARY WORK IN THE GARDEN IN MID AUTUMN
Continue to carry out sanitary pruning of shrunken, broken and diseased branches.
Factory-made catching belts made of corrugated paper are removed and burned. Immediately after removal, fabric ones are cleaned of pests (they are destroyed), soaked in hot water and washed in a solution of soda ash to be used next season.
Against scab, apple and pear trees are sprayed with a urea solution (500-700 g per 10 liters of water) before leaf fall begins. Consumption per tree – 2-5 l. If the deadlines are missed and leaf fall occurs, the fallen leaves are treated (30 liters of a 10% solution are consumed per 7 sq.m. - 700 g per 10 liters). All leaves (fallen, healthy and after treatment) are raked and sent to the compost heap. Sick untreated - it is better to burn.
To destroy gooseberry moth pupae, the soil in the trunk circles of currants and gooseberries is dug up, and after harvesting the leaves, the bushes are covered with soil with a layer of 8-XNUMX cm.
The ends of blackcurrant and gooseberry branches affected by powdery mildew are cut out and burned, and the bushes are treated with a solution of soda ash (50 g per 10 liters of water).
Reference by topic: Preparing the garden for winter: starting in September - important tricks
PREVENTION OF GRAPES DISEASES
Warm weather with high air humidity at the beginning of the month favors the development and spread of mildew and oidium. After harvesting, it is advisable to treat the bushes fungicides Biocomposite-Pro, Tiovit Jet, Abiga-Pik, Kurzat R and others permitted for use on private farms.
At the beginning of the month, the grape bushes can be sprinkled 2-3 times with an interval of 5-6 days with a solution of potassium sulfate (10-15 g per 10 liters of water) or an infusion of ash (1 liter of ash is poured into 10 liters of water and infused for 6-7 days). This foliar feeding promotes better ripening of the vine.
CONCERNS OF A VEGETABLE GROVER IN SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER
In the open ground, the last fruits of cucumbers, pumpkins, zucchini, squash, peppers, and tomatoes are collected. Everything needs to be removed before frost.
The collection of tomatoes and peppers continues in greenhouses. In warm weather during the daytime and positive night temperatures, tomatoes are picked brown. Green fruits are harvested at temperatures below 8°C.
HARVESTING ROOTS AND POTATOES
Root crops are well stored and do not fade if they are harvested in dry weather at a temperature not exceeding 10°C. Root vegetables are carefully dug up with a pitchfork so that they can be pulled out of the ground without much effort and without damaging the skin.
В First of all, the beets are harvested, since it has a short growing season (early varieties - about 60 days, late ripening - 115-120). When harvested too late, beet roots become coarse, crack, and are often damaged by mice.
It is advisable to wait a little while before harvesting carrots sown in late May - early June and intended for long-term storage. In autumn, it grows intensively, and stops growing when the average daily temperature is below 4°C.
For potatoes, 7-10 days before digging, the tops are mowed and removed. To correctly determine the harvesting time, up to 10 bushes are dug up in different places on the site. If the tubers do not hold onto the stolons and the peel does not rub off, it’s time to dig.
The dug up tubers are well dried in the sun, sorted by size, put into bags and placed in a dark, ventilated room for 2-3 weeks. After this, the potatoes are examined, tubers damaged by disease are removed, and healthy ones are placed in the cellar for storage.
Seed potatoes are harvested from healthy and highly productive bushes, under which the largest number of tubers have formed. Select tubers of the correct shape for a given variety, weighing 50-70 g each. They are kept in diffused light for several days until they turn green, and only after that they are stored. Each variety is accompanied by a label and stored separately in nets or boxes.
Having completed the harvest, it is necessary to take care of restoring the fertility of the soil so that next year it will also grow well. All plant residues and waste are removed: healthy above-ground parts of plants are composted, sick ones are burned or buried in a specially designated place.
After harvesting potatoes and vegetable crops in the first ten days of September to restore fertility it is good to sow early ripening green manure crops, which build up green mass within a month and serve as good soil health workers.
Plant remains of potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, cabbage and other vegetable plants should not be embedded in the soil or left on the site. This negatively affects the growth and development of other plant species next year.
The soil is fertilized with half-rotted manure, which is plowed in on the same day, and with potassium fertilizers (potassium salt, sylvinite, potassium chloride), so that chlorine is washed into the lower layers of the soil during the winter. Of the phosphate fertilizers on acidic soils, only phosphate rock can be applied.
Burnt or slaked lime, cement dust, and ash are not added simultaneously with manure, as this leads to loss of ammonia nitrogen from the manure. These fertilizers are applied and incorporated into the soil a few days before spreading organic matter or in the year when it is not applied.
SO THAT YOU KNOW
Phosphorite flour is a fertilizer that is difficult to dissolve in water. It is undesirable to apply it on soils that are neutral or close to neutral in acidity, since under these conditions the phosphorus contained in flour is practically inaccessible to plants. But on acidic soils, under the influence of soil acids, phosphorus becomes available to plants. Acidic soils are limed.
Plowing or Digging of the soil is carried out to the depth of the fertile layer, without breaking clodsso that the soil is well saturated with moisture and frozen in the autumn-winter period. This also makes it possible to significantly reduce the number of wintering pests.
Prepare the soil for winter sowing of cold-resistant vegetable crops: carrots, beets, dill, parsley, radishes. And also - beds for autumn planting of winter garlic and small onion sets. They are planted 18-25 days before the onset of permanent frosts.
Greenhouses and greenhouses not occupied by crops are cleared of plant residues, used soil is removed and filled with fresh soil prepared in advance. Or they are disinfected using Fitosporin, Gamair, other fungicides, or by sowing green manure cruciferous crops: mustard, oilseed radish, rapeseed, rapeseed, camelina.
© Author: Nikolay Rogovtsov, agronomist Photo by the author
FLOWER DIARY SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER
FLOWERS IN THE GARDEN
In September, flower beds continue to delight us with their variety of colors. Asters come to the fore, while dahlias and heleniums create a feeling of luxury and celebration. And all we can do is admire the farewell beauty of nature and not forget about the important things that need to be done this month.
WE DIVIDE AND REPLANT PERENNIALS
In autumn they are divided into perennials that bloom in spring and in the first half of summer. But if necessary, you can also plant those that bloom in the second half of summer, only by first removing their flower stalks and partially cutting off the foliage.
In the first half of September you can plant astilbes, lilies, hostas, in the second - daylilies, paniculata phlox, aquilegia, rudbeckia. Old perennials with a shallow root system (astilbes, phloxes, heleniums, geraniums) can be rejuvenated without digging them up entirely.
In the middle zone, it is advisable to divide the plants before mid-September so that they have time to take root before the onset of cold weather.
PREPARING ROSES AND CHRYSANTHEMUMS FOR WINTER
After abundant summer flowering, roses vitally need restorative phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. Phosphorus and potassium in fertilizers will allow plants to accumulate a sufficient supply of nutrients that accelerate the ripening of shoots, increase their resistance to the vagaries of the weather and prepare them for wintering. Can be used potassium magnesia, double superphosphate, potassium monophosphate, wood ash. If possible, apply fertilizers in liquid form, in which case they are better absorbed.
You can prepare an ash extract from wood ash: pour 2 cups of ash with a bucket of water and let it brew for 2-3 days. Then dilute 1 liter of the resulting product with 10 liters of water and pour the roses at the root. Try to feed them before the second half of September; Cold soil makes it more difficult for roots to absorb nutrients.
At the end of September feed the chrysanthemum bushes with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers: after abundant watering, add 1 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium sulfate to the soil per 30 sq.m. This feeding will help the plants better withstand the winter cold. If fertilizers are not at hand, replace them with wood ash (100 g per 1 sq.m.).
Do not use organic matter and nitrogen-containing fertilizers in the autumn. Nitrogen will promote the development of young shoots, which will greatly weaken the chrysanthemums on the eve of wintering.
A week after feeding, spray the chrysanthemums with Fundazol or Bordeaux mixture.
September is the best time to plant clematis. By winter, the young seedlings will have time to take root and adapt to their new location.
Treat the soil for clematis a month before planting.. Clayey - it is necessary to improve it by adding sand, peat, leaf soil for digging, taking them in equal parts; to sandy - add clay. Produce acidic soil. Fill the planting hole with a mixture of compost (2-3 buckets), granulated superphosphate (200 g), potassium sulfate (2 tablespoons) and wood ash (2-3 cups).
Before planting, cut off the damaged parts of the roots of the seedlings, treat the cuts with a solution of potassium permanganate and sprinkle with crushed coal.
When planting, deepen the root collar of young plants by 4-5 cm, of adults by 10 cm, then water generously and mulch with peat chips. Planting too deeply inhibits the growth of clematis and can lead to their death.
PLANTING TULIPS AND HILL GRUSES
At the end of September you can plant tulips. Prepare the soil for planting them in advance (preferably a month before): dig up thoroughly, add humus or compost (7-9 kg per 1 sq.m.), ash (200 g), superphosphate (50 g). Before planting, do not forget to etch the planting material in a solution of fungicide or potassium permanganate.
Plant larger bulbs at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other, small ones - 5 cm. Place large specimens at a depth of 12-15 cm, medium ones - 8-10 cm, children - 5-7 cm. With the first frost, mulch the planted bulbs with mowed grass. grass, peat or dry leaves.
Before at the end of September it is necessary to plant hazel grouseso that they have time to take root before the onset of frost. Dig holes measuring 30x30 cm, pour a 3-5 cm layer of sand on the bottom as drainage (hazel grouse does not tolerate stagnant moisture). Make a nutrient mixture for filling holes from compost, garden soil and sand (2:3:1). Add a handful of wood ash, which will serve as both additional fertilizing and soil deoxidizer.
В in the middle zone they begin digging up gladioli from the second half of September. In order for the corms and children to ripen well, they must be in the soil for at least a month (or even a little more) after you cut the inflorescences. Having dug up, wash the corms, remove the old mother bulb (by the end of the growing season, it has already managed to transfer its nutrient reserves to the replacement young bulb). To combat thrips, dip the bulbs in the Inta-8ira solution for half an hour, then rinse with water and dry at a temperature of 2530°C for one and a half to two weeks. Then dry for another month in a well-ventilated place at a temperature of 20°C.
CUTTING GRASSY PEONIES
In the autumn In herbaceous peonies, shoots and leaves die. Proceed with pruning only when the above-ground parts of the plants dry out.
You should not prune too early, otherwise the rhizome will not have time to accumulate nutrients coming from the foliage, as a result the plant will go into winter weakened. But you shouldn’t be late with pruning, especially if the weather is rainy and cold. This is fraught with rotting of dried stems and leaves, as well as rot of the rhizome.
When pruning peonies, leave short stumps (2-3 cm).
SO SEPTEMBER CHILDREN DON'T GET SICK
For perennial asters (Septembers), soils with high acidity must be limed. It is advisable to do this in the fall. For acidic soil, add dolomite flour (8-200 g per 400 sq.m.) or slaked lime (1-150 g). Wood ash also neutralizes acidity (300-100 g per 200 sq.m.).
After flowering ends, so that September people don't get sick, it would be a good idea to spray them with copper sulfate. This will protect the plants from powdery mildew and other fungal diseases.
FLOWERS IN THE HOUSE
Start bring potted plants into the house. If the night temperature drops below 16°C, begonias, bromeliads, Saintpaulias, and citrus fruits require returning indoors. When the temperature drops to 57°C - tropical plants (fuchsias, abutilons, ficus, dracaenas). When the temperature drops to 35°C, succulents and bougainvilleas are sent into the house.
At the beginning of September, you can cut and rejuvenate old Tradescantia. Cut cuttings 10-25 cm long; they root well in water or in a substrate based on compost and sand in a 1:1 ratio.
When the eucharis and wallot have a flower arrow, feed the plants (provided they have not been replanted this year) with a complete 0% mineral fertilizer.
Feed flowering pelargoniums with a weak solution of complete mineral fertilizer (1/2 teaspoon per 1 liter of water).
Place the azaleas in low pots and move them to a cool place where the temperature is 812C.
For achimenes, tuberous begonias, and gloxinias, reduce watering so that the leaves of the plants dry out and a period of dormancy begins.
You can plant daffodil and hyacinth bulbs for forcing. Plant hyacinths in mid-September in a light soil mixture and place them on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator for 3 months (keep the soil moist). Plant large daffodil bulbs in sand or neutral peat, 1/3 deep. Place the pot in a plastic bag and also place it on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. Water as needed.
© Author: Yulia Kupina, experienced florist
See also: October: what to do in the garden
GARDEN WORK IN OCTOBER - VIDEO
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