SOWING VEGETABLES IN WINTER - BETTER TO BE LATE THAN HURRY!
Thanks to winter sowing, you can not only get the harvest faster, but also increase it. Early seedlings get more soil moisture, the seedlings harden, grow healthy and strong, and the vegetables then turn out large, juicy and tasty. So take care of the first greens of the new season now.
WHAT IS POSSIBLE AND WHAT IS NOT TO SOW BEFORE WINTER?
This method of sowing is not suitable for heat-loving vegetables. But for cold-resistant crops (radish, dill, lettuce, spinach, arugula, onions), as well as slow-growing crops (carrots, parsley, celery, fennel), it is optimal.
The seeds will overwinter well and will determine when to germinate. Shoots almost always appear before the start of spring sowing, but they can withstand short-term return frosts of up to 3° without harm.
Compacted winter crops are practical - for example, alternating rows of carrots and radishes or lettuce
EXACT TIME OF WINTER SOWING
It’s better to be late than to hurry with winter crops. If you hurry, in the fall the seeds
can produce seedlings that will inevitably die from frost. Therefore, sowing begins when stable cold sets in and the top layer of the earth freezes. The process is popularly called “sowing shards at a time.”
In the Central region of Russia the best time is late October - early November or even later – during the thaw, when the top layer of soil thaws. However, there are also seasons without stable sub-zero temperatures until the end of autumn. Therefore, you need to navigate the weather, monitor the weather forecast for a decade, or even a month in advance. Sow strictly after the average daily temperature drops below zero, and on the surface of the earth during the day the thermometer can rise to 4°.
IN BOXES, BUT NOT IN OFFENSE
High ridges (at least 30 cm) cannot be avoided; in the spring, melt water should not stagnate on them. It is good to make them with sides in the form of boxes, then the slopes will not be washed away.
The area should be fully illuminated by the sun all day so that the earth warms up faster. The soil you need is only fertile, loose, rich in organic matter. Heavy loams become very compacted during the winter, which negatively affects the development of seedlings. In this case, suitable soil is specially made. The preparation of the beds (digging, loosening, fertilizing) begins immediately after harvesting the predecessor crop, and then the weeds on them are destroyed as they grow.
Before the onset of cold weather, grooves are cut for sowing seeds. If the ground freezes and even some snow falls, it won't be a problem. It can be swept away, but it is better to cover the bed in advance with a film stretched over low arcs.
For seeding prepare cover soil - a mixture of light soil, sand, lowland peat in equal partsX. It is stored in a frost-free room.
The lettuce varieties Kucheryavets Odessa and Kucheryavets Sem-ko work well with winter sowing. Ice, Lollo Rossa, Moscow greenhouse, Festival, Large cabbage, Berlin yellow, Oak, Emerald, Hugin, Frillred, Lagunos, Rosan, Rosella, Gauguin, Turin us.
Reference by topic: Winter crops of vegetables - when and how: agronomist's advice
ALMOST RITUAL ACTIONS
Sow only dry seeds and cover with a layer of casing soil of about 3 cm. Small seeds, such as celery, are buried at 1 cm. It is good to use pelleted ones - they are easy to distribute evenly, and the nutritious shell serves as additional protection from adverse conditions and rodents.
The seeding rate for winter sowing is increased by at least 30% compared to spring sowing to guarantee a sufficient number of seedlings.
The furrows are covered with cover soil, the surface of the ridge is rolled and additionally mulched with a thin (2-3 cm) layer of sifted humus or lowland peat. This protects against temperature fluctuations, premature heating by the sun and the formation of soil crust in the spring. To prevent the earth from thawing during the thaw, the ridge is covered spruce branches, straw (layer 10-15 cm) or non-woven.
SCREENS AS BARRIERS
To prevent seeds from dying in frost, a stable snow cover is very important, so care must be taken to ensure snow retention. Spruce branches laid out on the bed will cope with this task, but if there are strong winds in your area, it may be worth additionally installing small screens (for example, from old plywood) that will serve as a barrier and keep the snow where it is needed.
In spring, the cover is removed immediately after the snow melts.. Then it will be possible to build film tunnels over the ridges in order to get the harvest even earlier. This primarily applies to green crops.
SPECIFIC AND SUBJECTIVE
Before winter, only early varieties of vegetables that are resistant to cold and flowering are sown. This information on the bag is quite enough, even if the suitability of the seeds for winter sowing is not specifically indicated.
Vegetable seeds with a deep dormant period that need stratification are sown only before winter. Such are sorrel, katran, wild garlic, and aneur onions.
Grown vegetables are stored poorly, because by the time they are stored in storage they are already significantly older than those grown during spring sowing. So they are usually used for food immediately after harvesting.
Here are recommendations for individual vegetable crops.
Carrots. Most varieties are not sown before winter, since they do not form a root crop, but go into flowering. However, there are modern varieties that are resistant to flowering - Podzimnyaya, Cold-resistant, Northern Shar. You can also safely use in the fall such varieties as Kuroda Shantane, Pro-minance and hybrids F, Princess, Yaroslavna, Early Sweet, Sugar Dream.
Parsley. Plants are less prone to rapid stemming, but are still not completely free from this drawback.
When sowing in winter, the varieties of leaf parsley that work well are Bogatyr, Breeze, Carnival, Leafy curly, Esmeralda, Italian giant, Appetizing and root: Alba, Sugar, Berlinskaya, Piquant, Good Morning, Harvest.
Celery. Pre-winter sowing can eliminate the need to grow seedlings of this very late-ripening vegetable (up to 160 days), especially since celery is very cold-resistant. The seeding rate is increased by 2 times.
Before winter, you can sow any variety of leaf celery (Azhur, Zahar, Athena, Parus, Samurai, Chudak), as well as petiole (Pascal, Malachite, Supergreen, Triumph, Florida, Tango, Avalon, Da-klet, Bolivar) and root (Prague giant, Strongman, Egor, Anita, Yablochny, President).
Beet table. Just in the case of beets, the suitability of the variety for winter sowing is usually written on the package of seeds, because not all varieties are suitable for this.
Varieties: Podzimnyaya A 474, Polar flat 24, Cold-resistant 19, Egyptian flat, Bordeaux 237, Single-sprout TSHA, Mulatto Tsyganochka, Incomparable A 463, Cylinders and hybrids F, Pablo, Aksinya, Vnuchka, Elizaveta.
Salad. Most varieties of leaf, head and half-head lettuce are suitable for winter sowing.
Before winter, any varieties of radishes, watercress, arugula, spinach, Chinese cabbage, salad mustard, and onions are sown for greens. And only early cabbage - white and red, cauliflower, kohlrabi.
Reference by topic: Pre-winter sowing so that vegetables have time to grow BEFORE pests!
SUBWINTER SOWING – LIST OF WHAT CAN BE PLANTED ON VIDEO
© Author: L. TYURINA, agronomist-vegetable grower
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