WHAT ROTS DO CARROTS AND BEETS HAVE AND WHY?
Root crops in the cellar most often suffer from rottenness. They are all different and contagious. It makes sense to recognize them because the control measures in the storage facility, although basically the same, in some cases still differ in detail.
KEEPING VEGETABLES IN TONE
Since diseases spread quickly when root crops come into contact with each other, it is necessary to remove damaged ones and, just in case, all neighboring ones that seem healthy. The first ones should be thrown away, the last ones should be put into use as quickly as possible.
It is necessary to ensure that there is good ventilation in the room and that the temperature does not change sharply. Maintain 1 – 3° at the storage location. And although high air humidity contributes to the appearance of rot, in storage it should reach 80-90% so that the root crops do not dry out, remain elastic, juicy and do not lose their taste.
Since rot pathogens often live in the soil for years, seeds of varieties that are resistant to a specific disease that has appeared on the site are selected for the next season.
A small amount of root vegetables is good to store on a glazed balcony in polypropylene bags or if each vegetable is wrapped in cling film and placed on a rack in an unheated pantry.
THE WHOLE PALETTE OF CARROTS' SUFFERINGS
1. White rot (sclerotinia). Carrots become infected while still in the garden, but symptoms are not visible until they are in the cellar. Initially, watery spots appear on it, which are quickly covered with thick white “cotton wool” - the mycelium of the fungus. Then it thickens, drops of liquid and rounded black tubercles-impregnations of closely woven threads form on it - sclerotia, new sources of infection.
What to do. Sclerotinia (the causative fungus) exhibits maximum activity a month and a half after planting, so from this time on it is necessary to carefully inspect the vegetables in the cellar. Experts do not recommend going through them. It is necessary to carefully remove the affected ones from the pile, immediately putting them in a plastic bag, and throw them away. Isolate the remaining carrots from other vegetables. Cotton flakes may appear on containers and on room drains. They are removed by wiping with a bleach solution. It is strictly forbidden to eat leftover carrots after cutting off this rot.
Resistant varieties: Aristo, Artek, Callisto, Magno, Forto.
2. Gray rot (botrythiosis). Weeping brown spots appear on root crops, which fall inward, quickly grow and become covered with a gray fluffy coating. Later, many small, about 2 mm, dark sclerotia are formed on it.
What to do. Since mycelium also spreads easily not only through contact, but also through the air, as with white rot, the method of control is the same. It is especially important not to store root vegetables next to cabbage and celery.
Resistant varieties: Nantskaya 4, Rogneda.
3. Black rot (Alternaria blight). Both in the garden bed and in the cellar, vegetables are covered with dry, depressed dark spots, which gradually increase in size. The diseased coal-black pulp is dry, hard and has a sharply defined border.
What to do. It is necessary to lower the temperature in the cellar to zero, even down to minus 2°, and ventilate it without a draft, because the disease does not spread in a cold room. A bucket of quicklime is placed in the basement, which will absorb excess moisture. Vegetables are placed in plastic bags with a capacity of 30-35 kg with holes, film thickness 50-60 microns. Then the likelihood of illness is significantly reduced. This is especially true for root crops with mechanical damage.
Resistant varieties: Vita Longa, Kuroda, Shantane, Red Core, Konservnaya, as well as hybrids F, Pharaoh, Champion, Canada, Tangerina, Bolero, Brilliance, Santorina.
Excess phosphorus feeding of carrots provokes white rot, while potassium feeding, on the contrary, reduces the likelihood of the disease.
4. Brown dry rot (fomoz). Affects most varieties of carrots in the field and especially during storage. Slightly depressed gray-brown spots appear on root crops, which grow, deepen, and become rotten. When cut, the pulp is dark brown, dry, with voids that are lined with a white coating of mycelium with black dots - pycnidia, carrying spores of the parasitic fungus. As a result, the root crop becomes hollow.
What to do. Gradually reduce the temperature in the storage to 2°, especially if it was warm there (10°). Carrots from this crop cannot be planted next season as queen cells to obtain seeds.
Resistant varieties: Dolyanka, Coral, Callisto, Supernant, Sestra, Khrustyashka, Baltimore, Gigant Rossa, Malika, hybrid F1 Calgary.
5. Felt rot (rhizoctoniosis). The leaves of diseased plants in the garden wither, turn yellow and die. Affected root crops are covered with gray-lead subcutaneous depressed spots. Over time, a purple coating, similar to felt, grows right on them. Then sclerotia form on it. The tissues become soft and rot, and it happens that the root crop dries out.
What to do. The container in which the carrots were placed is washed with a solution of potassium permanganate before placing the remaining healthy root vegetables into it. Sprinkle the crop with dry calcined sand.
Resistant varieties: Moscow winter, Karamelka, Losinoostrovskaya 13. 6Spotted rot (fusarium). In the field, infection begins with rotting of the root collar. Plants die, and the roots of those that survive become malformed. In storage under conditions of high humidity, depressed light spots appear on them, which grow in folded circles. Vegetables shrivel, resembling mummies, and a fluffy white coating forms on them, turning pink over time. Sometimes cracking ulcers occur, the tissue in the cracks is bright pink. The border between healthy and diseased pulp is sharp.
What to do. To stop the spread of pathogenic microorganisms, treat the area where the diseased carrots were destroyed with biofungicides. Then dry the vegetables.
Relatively resistant varieties: Berlicum Royal, Maestro, Nelli.
Reference by topic: Rot (photo disease) - control measures
DO BEETES HAVE SPECIAL ROT?
The root crop suffers from the same rots as carrots, and the symptoms are sometimes very similar. Moreover, different parts of beets are not equally resistant to rot. The tail rots first, but the head is the most resistant. The middle is susceptible to disease, the closer to the root, the stronger.
Many people believe that beets have a specific disease - black rot. But in fact, this is a general, collective name for all rot of root crops during storage. It’s just that beets, and also potatoes, are most often stored in heaps - heaps stacked on the ground or in trenches, covered for the winter. The disease is caused by a complex of microorganisms - both fungi and bacteria - that attack in the garden. In the cellar, the disease progresses, root crops lose their sugar content, become covered with multi-colored mold, become wet or, conversely, lifelessly dry, depending on the pathogen, and may become completely unusable. Naturally, neither humans nor animals should eat such beets.
What to do. Sort through, throw away diseased root vegetables and, just in case, sprinkle the remaining ones with a solution of biofungicide or freshly slaked lime (1 kg/10 l of water). The latter creates an alkaline environment, thereby delaying the development of pathogenic fungi. It also prevents the germination of root crops. If the affected area is small, the diseased vegetables are separated from the total mass, and the remaining ones are dusted with ash.
Relatively resistant varieties: Pronto, Bravo, Bordovaya Zvezda, Zhukovchanka, Nastenka. Hybrids F1 Belushi, Pablo, Subeto.
Carrots and beets that are harvested late or too early are at risk. Such root crops wither or freeze faster, which leads to rampant rot.
Reference by topic: How to deal with gray rot on vegetables - symptoms and control measures
© Author: G. ZELENSKAYA, experienced gardener
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