ONION FROM SEEDS IN ONE YEAR
I grow large onions every year through sets. I read that it can be grown from seeds in one year, sowing them directly in the garden bed. This year, as an experiment, I sowed a small bed with seeds, but the bulbs grew to the size of a small set, and even then they sat green in the ground until mid-September. What I did wrong? How to grow bulbs of normal size? Alla Kondratyeva, Sterlitamak
Artem Gushcha, agronomist
Indeed, most summer residents onions for turnips are grown through sets. But it can be grown from seeds by sowing directly into open ground without much difficulty.
Onions are a cold-resistant plant; seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 35°C. Therefore, they need to be sown at the earliest possible time, simultaneously with early spring crops, in moist soil, which ensures uniform emergence of seedlings. At low positive temperatures, the root system of onions grows faster than the leaves, which ensures early development and good ripening of the bulbs.
KEEP IN MIND
Bulbs from seeds ripen a month later than those grown from sets. In addition, such onions have a less developed root system and are not as resistant to drought. Therefore, it requires more frequent watering during dry periods.
Before sowing, the seeds are soaked in water and placed in the refrigerator for 6-7 days. After light drying, they are sown. Such seeds ripen on the 10-14th day (6-7 days earlier than dry ones).
The best predecessors are cruciferous crops, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers and other pumpkins. It is advisable to return it to its original place no earlier than three years later. The soil should be light, loose and fertile. If organic matter was not added to the previous crop, then when preparing the soil in the autumn, it is fertilized with humus or compost at the rate of 1-5 kg per sq.m. In the fall, the garden bed is also prepared.
Onions do not like high concentrations of salts in the soil, so it is better to apply mineral fertilizers in several stages. Before sowing, 15-20 g of ammonium nitrate or 10-15 g of urea, 20-25 g of superphosphate and 10-15 g of potassium chloride are added to each square meter of area for loosening.
For sowing, deep grooves (2-2 cm) are made in the garden bed every 5-20 cm, seeds are laid out in them with a distance of 25-2 cm between them and covered with a 4-1.5 cm layer of soil. It is advisable to mulch the crops with a layer of humus or peat , which will protect the soil from drying out and crusting.
Onions are not afraid of spring frosts. In the phase of 1-2 true leaves, seedlings can withstand cold temperatures down to – 1-2°C. and when forming the bulb – up to – 3 – 4°C.
Caring for onions from seeds and sets is practically no different. As soon as the seedlings appear, carry out the first fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers: 10-15 g of urea or ammonium nitrate is dissolved in 10 liters of water and applied to 1-1 sq.m of sowing in the row spacing. When 5-2 true leaves are formed, the crops are thinned out and fed with nitrogen, as for the first time, but no later than June 3. The third feeding is carried out at the beginning of the formation of the bulb: 20 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium chloride or 15 cups of ash are dissolved in 1 liters of water per 5 sq.m of planting. During the summer, the soil is constantly loosened (especially after watering) and weeded from weeds.
For growing onions from seeds in regions with harsh climates, early, mid-early and mid-season varieties are suitable with long shelf life.
Among them are Danilovsky 301, Zolotnichok, Gold Star, Christina, One Year Siberian, Centurion F1.
Reference by topic: Onion turnip - harvest in the first year after sowing
ONIONS FOR TURNIP FROM SEEDS FOR A YEAR - VIDEO
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